In July, 1937, when I assumed the presidency, almost the whole of the Bloomington campus of Indiana University lay between Jordan Avenue and Indiana Avenue on the east and west, Tenth Street and Third Street on the north and south. All the academic buildings (except the Home Economics Practice House), the administration building, the library, the original Memorial Union Building, the President’s House, a meeting and concert hall, all the sport and physical education facilities, the four residence halls, University School, the printing plant, the power plant, and two machine shops were situated in this quadrangle. Not all of the land within belonged to the university. Half of the sororities and fraternities had houses within these boundaries (many others were just across the street), and there were a number of private residences, particularly in the northwest section. Part was just open field belonging to the university and important in its planning.
Even though there was neither an east-west nor a north-south traffic artery through the campus, cars could travel east on Seventh Street to the Fieldhouse (now Wildermuth Intramural Center) or over a winding road that entered the campus at Fifth (Kirkwood) Street and exited down Sorority Alley (now a walk alongside Ballantine and Jordan halls) to Third Street.
The Self-Survey Committee, appointed early in my administration, reported that it foresaw no appreciable growth in the student body. Nevertheless, the time seemed to me appropriate for planning an orderly extension of the campus. We knew we had to move north and east because most of the undeveloped land lay there—north of Tenth and east of Jordan. We tried to place facilities that would be used by the whole campus as close to the center of the campus-to-be as we could then envision it. We picked the site for the Auditorium in 1939 with that thought in mind, and mentally we began to reserve the site north of it for the central library of the future, a building we knew was certain to come. The results of our planning for the university community can now be seen: buildings that are useful to the whole campus—namely, the Library, the Art Museum and Fine Arts building, and the Auditorium—are situated between the housing and the classroom areas of the university. Constructed earlier, Wildermuth fits into this pattern. Roughly speaking, we have housing and auxiliary services enveloping the academic core of the university in a partial crescent from Indiana Avenue east along Third Street to Union Street and then north on Union to Tenth, then west to Fee Lane. The plan also has a reserved area for the future development of research institutes and facilities that will be needed no matter how the student population fluctuates. A great university steadily develops its research and specialized activities and provides physical facilities for them without regard to student enrollment. It is highly desirable that these have proximate relationship to the library, the power plant, and similar central supply facilities.
The area between Indiana and Woodlawn extending from Seventh Street to the athletics complex has been earmarked for this kind of future development, and consistently through the years the university has been buying properties there as they became available at reasonable figures. Also in our campus planning it early became apparent that, as the university grew, intercollegiate sports would have to move to the periphery of the campus. The move was necessary to permit construction of the kind and size of athletics structures that would be called for, to provide adequate parking for spectators, and to give us room to develop a modern plant. Near the outset of our planning we realized that we must acquire the Faris farm of 160 acres, and we did; it now is the locus of the Stadium, Assembly Hall, and the Fieldhouse. In addition we began purchasing vacant properties to the east as they became available to serve for practice fields, track, and club sports. Fortunately we already had much of the ground required for a golf course, as it had furnished the watershed for the old university water plant, but additional ground had to be bought in that area. We also bought to the west of the watershed area (across what is now the Bypass) as much ground as we could get before it became unreasonably high-priced. These moves as a result of planning were among the most fortunate we made because we were able to acquire hundreds and hundreds of acres at near-farmland prices. We began this acquisition in the war years, when real estate was depressed anyway, and with faith that the university was destined to grow. Had we waited until the growth escalation became apparent, the cost to the state would have been almost prohibitive. The development of a modern academic plant in Bloomington was immeasurably facilitated by our policy of buying property very actively during the war years. I shall always be grateful to the faculty for their willingness to allow us to invest operating dollars in the future and to forego other needs that existed then.
We dreamed of a major building program and came to the conclusion that we should employ a distinguished architectural firm to coordinate the whole campus-plan development and to design future buildings. In the 1920s and 1930s two principal architects had been used. One was Carlisle Bollenbacher of the firm of Lowe and Bollenbacher (later Granger and Bollenbacher) in Chicago. Carlisle Bollenbacher was an Indiana University graduate who also had training in architecture; he had achieved a wide reputation as a designer of beautiful structures. That firm designed the original part of the Memorial Union Building, Memorial Hall, the Tenth Street Stadium, and Bryan Hall, the administration building. All these structures are in my judgment highly successful architecturally for their time and place. In addition to Bollenbacher the university employed from time to time Robert Frost Daggett, a well-known architect in his day and considered to be a sound and well-trained man, drawing good plans. He designed the President’s House,1 the original Music School Building on Third Street, the Chemistry Building, and perhaps others that I do not now remember.
Soon after I came to the presidency, Ward Biddle and I went to New York to inform ourselves about the leading architectural firms in America. From our interviews we hoped to form a judgment that would allow me to make a recommendation to our trustees. We saw McKim, Mead, and White and other firms, among them John Russell Pope Associates—later to use the names Eggers and Higgins and Eggers and Higgins Associates. For many years Otto Eggers had been the principal designer for John Russell Pope, a very noted architect of his time. Among the buildings for which Eggers had been Pope’s designer were the National Gallery of Art in Washington, many of the buildings at Yale, including the famous and beautiful gymnasium, and other outstanding structures throughout the United States; he had also designed the addition to the Tate Gallery in London.
I found Eggers and Higgins interested in our building program and sensitive to the need to have Hoosier architects associated with it in order to maintain the good will of the architectural profession in Indiana and, more importantly, to provide knowledge of the local situation. Eggers and Higgins was quite agreeable to an arrangement by which it would be in general charge of the design and have associated with it local architects whom we would jointly select to execute the working drawings, subject to the approval of the New York firm. The firm’s service with us began with the new Auditorium and continued over a span of more than thirty years. It subsequently designed all the new major buildings on the Bloomington campus preceding the Musical Arts Center. For many of these, the Indiana architects we used were in the firm of Burns and James, later the James Associates, well-known architects in Indianapolis, who formed a happy relationship with Eggers and Higgins, working in harmony and cooperation throughout that building development. The two firms shared similar tastes and standards, and altogether the arrangement was fortunate. Another Hoosier architect, A. M. Strauss of Fort Wayne, had just finished a design for the Business and Economics Building (Woodburn Hall) when we made our contract with Eggers and Higgins. Eggers and Higgins began by reviewing Strauss’s design for that building and making some slight modifications in it. Strauss was the associated architect on the Auditorium, but the designs for the Auditorium, the Fine Arts Building, and later the Lilly Library were drawn by Eggers and Higgins. It was our plan from the start to try to preserve the traditional style of architecture on the old campus with as little modification as possible but, as we moved outward, to allow the buildings to conform with architectural styles currently in vogue.
Through the years Eggers and Higgins developed certain specialities, one of these being athletic facilities. Because no local architect had any particular experience or expertise in designing structures like our projected stadium and later Assembly Hall, Eggers and Higgins did the whole design and had its own representatives on the grounds to supervise the construction. The firm through the years developed a division dealing with hospitals and medical facilities. As it had designed a number of attractive medical centers and hospitals in various parts of the country, we used its services for most of the new structures on the Medical Center campus and especially for the new University Hospital, which, when phase three of its plan is constructed, will prove to be a building of great usefulness and outstanding design.
Early on we were fortunate to be able to attract for the university’s supervising landscape architect Frits Loonsten of Indianapolis, unquestionably Indiana’s leading landscape architect and gardener. As he was trained in Holland, one might expect him to be a specialist in the formal landscaping—flowerbeds and so on—that is characteristic of the Dutch. However, he had a great feeling for the natural, and through the years he landscaped new buildings on the Bloomington campus, keeping in mind the theme of the natural wooded area that we had early adopted as our ideal for the overall landscaping of the campus and tying in the newer areas with the older, wooded center. This scheme led to our setting aside three additional green areas to the east of the Old Campus: a small one behind Old College Row, the grounds around the President’s House, and a larger expanse to be developed where the “temporary” Trees Center buildings are, ringed by Willkie, Forest, Read, and the Jordan River.
Loonsten was so expert that he was able to combine new landscaping with the old in such a way that it seemed always to have been there—the true mark of a landscape architect. We did develop a few formal spots, namely, that around the Showalter Fountain, the Sweeney Rock Garden to the north of the Auditorium, and the little sunken plaza in the west front of Ballantine Hall, as well as the garden of the President’s House, which was begun in Dr. Bryan’s time. But in general Loonsten emphasized that we should avoid flowerbeds and other such delightful ornamentation because they were out of character with the naturalness of the campus and were very expensive to maintain. Instead of planting what would have to be weeded and cared for all summer long, he advised that we preserve the wildflowers of the woodland campus. Loonsten was a happy choice and directed our efforts for many years. Much of the beauty of the campus can be attributed to his taste and expertise.
In the course of a building program of such size as we had on the Bloomington campus over a period of some thirty-five years, many peculiar and interesting things happened that were not anticipated. For example, right in the beginning Otto Eggers designed the Auditorium as the focus of the Fine Arts Plaza, with the Fine Arts Museum and Building on one side and a Greek theater on the other. His original design called for a centerpiece, a fountain it was hoped. A beautiful rendering of that scheme was drawn to be used in presentations to prospective donors. In due course the Auditorium, the Fine Arts Museum and Building, and the fountain were realized, but the alfresco theater bowl was not. By the time we were ready to build the theater, the public had become so accustomed to air conditioning that there was little desire for outdoor performances and assemblages. It seemed appropriate to use that site for the Lilly Library since it would certainly contribute its share to the fine arts.
From time to time, the cost of the planned building exceeded the money available and we had to make compromises. Eggers and Higgins was always willing to make compromises, perhaps too willing, in order to get the buildings underway. For example, the Geology Building, which is frequently criticized as being too austere, was not so designed; the original plans called for a handsome, heroic, metal sculpture on the south side that would have made the building much more aesthetically pleasing. The modifications of the plans for Ballantine Hall illustrate other compromises. The original design called for this large classroom building to have two stories fewer than it now has, but, as we moved along, there was pressure from the faculty to increase the size of the building, and, right at the last minute, two floors were added. Because the elevator facilities could not be expanded at that late date, they have not been as adequate as they should be. But perhaps the most questionable modification, made to save money, was the elimination of the escalators, replaced by a back stairway, for the first three floors of Ballantine. Had those escalators been retained in the plans, the bulk of the student traffic could be moved freely up and down and, even without the expansion, the elevators would have been adequate. Moreover, the two-story addition is exposed to the hot sun in the summertime and deprived of the cooling effect of the shade trees; unfortunately the space left for air-conditioning ducts has proved inadequate in spots for installing modern units.
In building the additions to the Memorial Union Building, Eggers and Higgins was very sensitive to the original design of both the exterior and the interior, although the construction took place in successive stages over about twenty-five years, I think. Every effort was made to blend the old and the new. The building is sometimes criticized as being too large because of the inclusion of the Biddle Continuation Center. We had the choice of adjoining the Continuation Center to the Union Building or placing it on the periphery of the campus. Michigan State had provided separate facilities, whereas Purdue had incorporated its continuing-education center in its union building. To have placed the Continuation Center on the periphery of the campus would have meant fewer parking and traffic problems, but a peripheral location would have deprived visiting scholars and professors of the use of rooms close to the departments with which they would be associated while on campus. Perhaps the greatest advantage of all in having the Continuation Center designed as it finally took form was that all dining facilities could be centralized rather than requiring a separate dining facility of major proportion in a new building off campus. The facilities serve faculty and student activities in the west section of the building and serve student, visitor, and conference functions in the east part of the building. All in all it has proved to be a satisfactory plan. Furthermore, facilities such as the bookstore, meeting rooms, and dining rooms are in juxtaposition to each other. The original plan was to leave a covered archway (as in Memorial Hall) between the bookstore and the next unit of the building because the students had made Woodlawn Avenue a major route of entry to the Old Campus and we thought that should be preserved. However, further study convinced us that the route could be enclosed; students could still enter from Woodlawn, pass through the building, and be exposed to the building’s facilities and amenities on their way to the Old Campus. This plan has worked reasonably well and would have worked superbly had we not eliminated the down escalator in that area. I still think that the down escalator should be installed and the Woodlawn entryway be made a bit more important than it now is by lighting and furnishings to attract students through it. Of course, with the building of additional dormitories to the north and east, the heaviest student traffic into the heart of the campus is along other routes.
In the latter part of my administration, there began a transition from natural ventilation in the summer to air conditioning. Some planners were urging that we air-condition all new buildings as soon as air conditioning was available. We followed a different policy for several reasons. In the first place, air conditioning was at that time generally regarded as a luxury. Few people had air conditioning either in their homes or in their offices. If we had air-conditioned all buildings, as wise as it now might seem, it would have been considered an extravagant expenditure of public money and it would have seriously impaired our relationship with the legislature. In the second place, university operating funds were then very meager; summer-school attendance was not large in those days, and the additional cost of air conditioning would have put a strain on the operating budget for the benefit of a relatively few students and faculty. Third, where there was some functional reason for air conditioning—for example, in certain laboratories, in libraries, in surgeries, and so forth—we used it as soon as it was available. We made a special point of not air-conditioning the administrative offices in Bryan Hall because we felt we had no right to make the administrative staff comfortable unless all areas of the university were similarly comfortable. During this transition period, however, we did ask that buildings be so planned and constructed that, when and if it became feasible to air-condition them, the ducts would be in place and no extensive amount of construction would be necessary. The architects and builders carried out this policy in many of the buildings, but in a few instances, as in Ballantine Hall, the duct space has had to be enlarged.
With the energy crunch and the pressure to reduce energy consumption, we may now have come full circle. At least it now seems there will be a reversion to more use of natural ventilation for much of the summer, except in the most extreme weather. Our buildings, in contrast with some on other campuses, are so constructed that, with rare exceptions, windows and doors will open.
Except for Eigenmann Hall, none of the residence halls is air-conditioned2. The reasons for omitting cooling units from the plans were similar to those for academic buildings. Although many of the halls are not open in the hot summer months, those used by summer students and conference participants are from time to time uncomfortably warm. Incidentally, the Greek-letter houses built in that period did not have air conditioning.
The housing of students was planned as carefully as were the academic buildings. When I was an undergraduate, Indiana University had no dormitories nor residence halls, except for a building called Alpha Hall on Third Street, rented from Colonel T. J. Louden and managed first by Florence Bond and then by Alice Nelson as a dormitory for women. Fraternity and sorority houses, most of them converted family residences, were scattered throughout the residential area of the town.
Since from time immemorial organization houses have on occasion “entertained” and that entertainment has frequently been noisy, there was constant friction between the student groups and neighboring householders. When I became president, I discovered that one of the most frequent complaints we received at the president’s office concerned the sleep-disturbing din from fraternity and sorority houses. Rather than try to suppress the spirits of youngsters who gave parties and dances and, particularly in the spring and the fall, entertained on their lawns into the wee small hours of the morning, I early began thinking about what could be done to locate the Greek-letter houses away from the homes of more sedate citizens. I felt it desirable to try to congregate the Greek-letter houses in one area so that the only neighbors they would disturb in their exuberant manifestations would be fellow Greeks.
During my undergraduate days there were no suitable vacant lots available for purchase by Greek-letter organizations. Hence they had to buy an existing structure and either remodel it or demolish it in order to build. As Greek-letter organizations had a reputation for being “easy marks,” owners typically placed a very high price on their properties. Moreover, few properties were available and certainly few in appropriate locations. A private developer with experience in construction of fraternity houses at the University of Wisconsin attempted to solve this problem in 1926. Beginning with Indiana University, he hoped to sell his plan to all of the major midwestern universities, a plan that made him responsible for the design, financing, construction, and furnishing of ten to twenty fraternity and sorority houses on each campus. This entrepreneur, Ralph S. Crowl, developed the Jordan Avenue quadrangle (Delta Chi, Delta Gamma, Theta Chi, Chi Omega, Phi Mu, Alpha Chi Omega, Sigma Alpha Epsilon, Zeta Tau Alpha, Sigma Kappa) as well as the Kappa Sigma house on Third Street. Because of the heavy financing involved for the organizations, the scheme was especially vulnerable to the effects of the Great Depression; the resulting problems gave fraternities and sororities the reputation of being poor financial risks.
As we began planning the expansion of the campus and purchasing additional land for future development we kept in mind the housing needs of Greek-letter organizations. To make the land north of Tenth Street useful for university growth, we bridged the Illinois Central Railroad and extended Jordan Avenue northward. This improvement enabled us to offer attractive building sites to Greek-letter organizations at cost. We charged for each building site the raw ground cost, which was very cheap, and its proportionate share of the cost of roads and utilities. Organizations were then able to acquire spacious and attractive building sites at much less expense than would otherwise have been possible.
More than reasonably priced sites were required to stimulate the Greek-letter organizations to relocate and to build modern housing. Financing was needed, and lenders, wary of making mortgage loans on chapter houses, increased interest rates to offset the presumed risk. On the other hand, since the full credit of the university was involved in borrowing for construction of residence halls, it could obtain money at low rates. As the cost of financing had to be absorbed in the charges to students, the Greek-letter housing efforts were at a comparative disadvantage. To overcome this in part, we evolved what came to be known as the Indiana Plan, famous throughout the Greek-letter world. Briefly stated, the plan consisted of a three-way contractual arrangement among the university, the fraternity or sorority, and the lender that was designed to eliminate the risk factor for the lender and thus reduce the rate of interest to the borrower. The tripartite contract required the university, in case of a default, to purchase the house and the fraternity or sorority to sell for the amount of the delinquent, unpaid balance, the proceeds to be used to pay the lender in full.3
The Indiana Plan was highly successful from the beginning, stimulating construction and reducing rates. Defaults through the years have been negligible, and in all instances the chapter houses have been successfully refinanced or sold to another organization. The composite debt has been steadily reduced until it is now small in comparison with the value of the properties. The one objective insufficiently realized in the working of the plan has been a fully compensating reduction in interest rates; at least I feel the rates should have been reduced more than they typically have been.
Some other universities tried to assist their Greek-letter organizations by building the houses, using university credit, and leasing them to organizations at a rate designed to defray the cost over a period of years. This method seemed to us to be paternalistic, robbing the chapters of a measure of their autonomy and also depriving them of the experience of fiscal management.
The rather spectacular fraternity and sorority row on North Jordan Avenue, including the extension beyond Seventeenth Street, came into existence as a result of the Indiana Plan. To keep the planning within bounds, a fraternity was limited to a building cost of $5,000 per student member. In the beginning certain of the Greek-letter organizations were reluctant to take advantage of the sites made available because the location seemed to them too far from the center of campus. They, and particularly their alumni, were simply unable to envision the future growth of the University. The Sigma Nus were the first to buy on North Jordan. They were persuaded to give up the site that they had bought earlier for a new house: the corner now occupied by Wright Quadrangle. That broke the resistance on the part of the organizations. Slowly and then more rapidly many others followed until at the present time the majority of the fraternities and sororities are housed on Jordan Avenue, from Third Street almost to the Chi Omega gates at the Bypass. Those organization houses which elected to stay adjacent to the campus on Third Street and on Seventh Street have been relieved of private neighbors as the university has purchased bordering houses and has generally turned them to university uses.
As we had early determined that we must offer an option to those students who wanted group living other than in Greek-letter organizations, we developed residence halls for the independent (nonaffiliated) students. The first residence halls, those constituting the present Wells Quadrangle and Men’s Residence Center (MRC), were constructed close by the academic campus. But particularly in the case of MRC, private homes stood all around and we had some of the same problems we had had with the fraternities and sororities, namely, students disturbing worthy householders. Soon, therefore, the wisdom also of grouping the residence halls on the periphery of the academic campus became apparent. We then began the development of residence halls on Fee Lane and eastward into the Smithwood area, placing them around the postwar temporary dormitories that in due course would be eliminated to leave a green center surrounded by permanent living units. We now have a majority of students residing in Greek-letter houses or university dormitories ringing the academic core of the university and away from private residential districts.
One night recently I drove around the student-housing areas at the end of the first week of the school year. The students were all swarming about, rejoicing in being together again—a small world of happy youth. Because their housing was apart, they were not disturbing their elders who were, by that time of night, either in bed asleep or burning the midnight oil.
Planning the residential hall system extended, of course, beyond matters of location and construction to considerations of financing and incorporating a concept of living. The state had taken the position that residence halls must be self-financing. Our answer, self-liquidating bonds, required that a charge for bond retirement and interest would be added to each student’s bill. Essentially this amounted to a fee charged each user for the availability of such housing.
We were keenly aware of the need for these residence halls to be made superior places for study and for the self-educating advantages of group living, if possible. In addition, we believed that the lounges and public rooms should be beautifully furnished as a way not only of making them attractive to the students but also of displaying a standard of taste, which we considered to be an important part of the student’s experience. We would have preferred private rooms for most students, but the rate would have been generally prohibitive. We were able, however, in the beginning to have some suites available where, say, three students who wished to be together could share a living room but each would have a private bedroom.
To accomplish these attractive features and at the same time keep the cost bearably low (even with furnished sites) required very careful architectural planning that incorporated all of the experience we had gained and all the information we could gather from other schools with longer experience in dormitory construction. Here Alice Nelson and her staff were an invaluable aid. She had a great sense of the practical and great courage, which served us well. The dormitories had to be attractive, not only on the inside, but on the outside as well to enhance the whole campus.
The very first dormitory to be self-liquidating was old South Hall, now Smith Hall, which was built right after World War I; successful financially, it did not, however, furnish a satisfactory model for future buildings. We continued the policy of issuing bonds for the cost of construction. The buildings were carefully phased so that the earliest buildings would be well along with their financing before the final buildings had to be constructed. We thus kept our equity at such a level that the security brokers were willing to sell our bonds. There was likewise provision for setting aside depreciation and reserve funds to meet the bond issue if a catastrophe should deplete the residency occupation for a year or two. From a financial standpoint, the significant factor was that we laid out in the beginning a plan that encompassed all of the huge dormitory development to come, with the exception of the final two, Eigenmann and Forest. The enrollment grew so rapidly in the 1960s and the residence hall system was in such good financial shape that it was possible to piggyback financially two additional structures on those originally planned.
We are now reaching a period in which many of the older dormitory structures will have to have major updating. One of our original ideas was that, if we could ever afford it, when the buildings were paid off and modernized, many of the double rooms, really rather small, would be converted to single rooms. We also had a feeling, especially in regard to the complexes built for approximately a thousand students that seemed to be an economical operating unit from a dining-room standpoint, that, if the time ever came when we could drop the occupancy back to 500 or 750 (not every student wants a single room), there would be sufficient nonassigned space to permit operation of the unit to some degree as a residential college with classes and tutorials conducted in the building. Planning of the buildings included this development as a possible eventuality and, who knows, it might come some time. There are signs that the idea is alive at the present in, for example, the intense in-house intellectual activity at the Living-Learning Center in MRC and also the increasing number of classes being taught in the recreation rooms or special lounges of the residence halls. The day may come when the idea will be realized fully.
The trauma of the late 1960s and the early 1970s and the general decline in standards of public decorum have largely obliterated the dream of providing lounges that would give students a taste of gracious living.4 This ideal seems to have been replaced by a utilitarian emphasis on furnishings that are impervious to the abuse to which students subject them. Curious to record, the only exception to the student structures so abused is the Indiana Memorial Union. Its management has worked persistently and imaginatively to make it a social center with amenities that would leave a mark upon the students throughout their lives.
When we started on the major program of dormitory building, we envisioned the possibility that a time would come when the university’s academic enclave ought to include what is now Wells Quadrangle and the MRC. They might be needed to establish residential colleges, we thought, or, more particularly might be used for academic purposes since they are in the central-campus area. Were these two complexes to be converted to academic use, there would then be an equality of location for all university student housing on the periphery of the campus.
One aspect of the dormitory building plan called for gradual phasing out of the many temporary structures that had been relocated here following World War II. These frame, two-story War Surplus buildings had been brought from the Bunker Hill base and set up south of Seventh Street between Jordan Avenue and Union Street in a section that came to be known as Trees Center. With the indispensable assistance of a local contractor and alumnus, Cecil Harlos, who assembled a crew of eight hundred men, the structures were made habitable for the influx of students after the war, many of them G.I.’s. Governor Ralph Gates aided materially in this housing emergency by providing some money from a Postwar Reconstruction Fund, partially obtained from a gallonage tax on alcoholic beverages.
Earlier, when the gallonage tax law was modified to provide a distribution of the yield that included the state universities, I reported this to my fellow university presidents in the Council of Ten at our spring meeting. It was customary for this group, after we had taken care of matters concerning athletics, passed some resolutions and conducted other routine business, to have a roundup with each president reporting on what success he had had with his legislature. Referring to our state’s new source of money from the gallonage tax, Ed Elliott, president of Purdue, shook his head and in his inimitable way declared, “Herman and I are not afraid of tainted money.” Quick as a flash Alec Ruthven of Michigan retorted, “Trouble is, ’tain’t enough.”
THE INDIANAPOLIS CAMPUS
The planning and development of the Indianapolis campus were governed by circumstances and requirements different from those of the Bloomington campus. The ruling conditions were in large part the functions to be performed in the various buildings, their relationship to each other, the limited growth of the student enrollment because of fixed ceilings for each of the three professional schools—medicine, dentistry, and nursing—but at the same time provision for expanding outpatient services, for increasing hospital operations, and for rapidly growing research programs. In addition, space had to be found for important facilities such as the Veterans Hospital, the Krannert Heart Research Institute, the headquarters and laboratories for the State Board of Health, and the expanded City Hospital (now Wishard). Since in the beginning we were desperately short of hospital beds, these affiliated hospitals were essential to our teaching function. Still, it was necessary to reserve space for a major teaching hospital of our own, which was in due course realized.
As all buildings had to be accommodated within a relatively small tract, the arrangement had to be very compact. Fortunately, most of the students lived in town and we were freed from the responsibility of providing more than minimal residential facilities. We did, however, plan and develop two first-rate apartment buildings for married students and allocated a portion of the Union Building there for student residence.
With all of this in mind, we early began to acquire property to the east of the campus as it became available. Thus, by the time the Indiana University-Purdue University at Indianapolis (IUPUI) organization had been effected and the Indianapolis campus was joined with Bloomington to form an axial core of the university, we had acquired most of the property extending from the old Indianapolis campus for some blocks to the east. Much of this property was tenement rental property. The Hoosier Realty Corporation was invaluable in these transactions, buying property when it became available and selling it to the university as it was needed. Surprisingly enough, we found out that, if we bought consistently in an area over a decade, we were able to acquire property at a buyer’s price. I am proud that we had the vision, in Indianapolis as in Bloomington, to pursue an aggressive program of land purchases, which makes the expansion of the Indianapolis campus now more readily possible than would otherwise be the case and which fosters the vision of congregation we had for the gathering of our schools and divisions in Indianapolis on one campus.
Such a compact campus as that of the Medical Center affords little opportunity for landscaping, but we were able to preserve a green area in the core of the campus and to establish pleasing landscaping around the Riley Hospital.
In our extension centers, since we had to operate with little help from the state legislature in the beginning (as I have described elsewhere), we began operations in shared quarters with the high schools. Our classes were held for the most part in the late afternoon or early evening, the hours when high school facilities were unused. Thus there was little additional direct cost, and the arrangement resulted in an extra utilization of expensive public plants, a socially desirable policy. However, there was some resistance by students to the use of high school classrooms. As soon as possible we began to build our own plant, overcoming the student distaste for the earlier arrangement and allowing us to operate throughout the day. In some instances we acquired existing buildings and made the required adaptations. Where we were able to build new structures, we built with limestone to emphasize the ties to the mother campus as well as to provide beautiful quarters for our evening students and faculties. In time we had to abandon limestone because of the cost, but we attempted to find attractive campus locations, landscape them appropriately, provide room for the future, and follow where appropriate the policies that have made the Bloomington campus notable. Those policies have helped to achieve a number of beautiful center campuses and at least one, Southeast, that is spectacularly successful.
THE IMPORTANCE OF SPECIALIZED STRUCTURES
FOR THE FUTURE OF THE MOTHER CAMPUS
Every great university has fine libraries and teaching museums, and most of them have attractive student and faculty amenities such as union buildings, faculty clubs, and the like; practically all have extensive recreational facilities for faculty and students. Harvard, for instance, has some of the worst classrooms in the world, but it also has the Houghton Library, the Widener Memorial Library, the Littauer Center for Public Service—highly specialized and elaborate structures for their purposes.
My basic principle in seeking certain specialized buildings for the Bloomington campus was that the concentration of such facilities makes the campus an effective center for specialized study and performance. To disperse them throughout the system would be very costly and inefficient. Such structures as the University Library, the Musical Arts Center, the Art Museum, the Lilly Library, the Glenn Black Laboratory, the University Museum, the Auditorium, the Cyclotron, Assembly Hall, and Memorial Stadium make it logical for the Bloomington campus to continue its function as the historical flagship of the Indiana University system. This is the reason why I believe the development of specialized facilities, which represent the adornment of a great university and which all great universities have, should be a high priority. Indiana University continues to make progress in this respect.
1. Edward James was the young draftsman for Daggett who drew the plans for the President’s House.
2. Two apartment buildings considered to be married student housing because of the predominance of student residents (Campus View and Tulip Tree House) are air-conditioned, as is the Union Building. The dining rooms in the residence halls are also air-conditioned.
3. Several colleagues were active in creating the Indiana Plan. A committee, headed by Professor Harold Lusk of the School of Business, was formed; members included Mary Maurer, a trustee, Colonel R. L. Shoemaker, Dean of Students, Professor Edward E. Edwards of the School of Business, Lloyd E. Setser, University Real Estate Manager, William Henry Snyder, a local attorney, and J. A. Franklin (ex officio), Treasurer of the University. They received assistance from Theodore Dann, an Indianapolis attorney, and J. Dwight Peterson, former university trustee and president of City Securities in Indianapolis.
4. As this goes to press I have learned that a plan for restoring the lounges to their former graciousness is being implemented.