1Harold C. Schonberg: “A Half Century of Orchestral Recordings,” Musical Courier, December i, 1945.
2E. G. Sonneck: Early Concert Life in America. (Leipzig: Breitkopf and Haertel, 1907.)
3H. Earle Johnson: Musical Interludes in Boston. (New York: Columbia University Press, 1943.)
1Robert Schumann: UA Retrospective View of Musical Life in Leip zig, Winter, 1837-38”; in Music and Musicians (translated by F. Ritter). (London: W. Reeves, 1880) Vol. I, p. 380.
2Eduard Hanslick: Geschichte des C oneertwesens in Wien. (Vienna: 1869.)
John H. Mee: The Oldest Music Room in Europe. (London: John Lane, 1911.)
Myles Birket Foster: The History of the Philharmonic Society of London, 1813-1912. (London: John Lane, 1912.)
Reginald Nettel: The Orchestra in England. (London: Jonathan Cape, 1946.)
Alfred Dörffel: Geschichte der Gewandhausconzerte zu Leipzig, 1781-1881. (Leipzig, 1884.)
A. Elwart: Histoire de la Societe des Concerts du Conservatoire Imperial de Musique. (2d. ed.; Paris, 1864.)
H. M. Schletterer: Johann Friedrich Reichhardt, Sein Leben und Seine Musikalische Thatigkeit. (Leipzig, 1879.)
George Dyson: The Progress of Music. ( London: Oxford University Press, 1932.)
3Percy Scholes: The Great Doctor Burney. (London: Oxford University Press, 1948), pp. 118-129.
Ibid., The Mirror of Music. (London: Novello & Co., 1949), Vol. I, pp. 144-147-
4Some of the sources of information on playing time were the following:
Catalogue of Edwin Fleischer Private Collection of Orchestral Music: Philadelphia Free Library, Philadelphia.
Encyclopedia of Recorded Music. (New York: Crown Publishers, 1948.)
Claire Reis: Composers in America. (New York: Macmillan Co., 1947.)
T. C. York: How Long Do They Play? (London: Oxford University Press, 1929*)
1John H. Mee: op. cit., pp. 30-32.
2Charles Francis Adams (ed.): Letters from John Adams, Addressed to his Wife. (Boston: C. C. Little and J. Brown, 1841), Vol. II, pp. 67-68.
3Albert TenEyk Gardner: Yankee Stonecutters, the First American School of Sculpture, 1800-18 jo. (New York: Columbia University Press, 1945.)
James Thomas Flexner: America’s Old Masters, First Artists of the New World. (New York: Viking Press, 1939.)
4Sonneck: op. cit., p. 65.
5United States Bureau of Census: A Century of Population Growth in the United States, 1790-1900. (Washington, D. C., 1909), p. 12.
6Alma M. Mahler (ed.): Gustav Mahler Briefe, 1879-1911. (Berlin, 1924.)
7Eduard Hanslick: Aus dem Tagebuch eines Musikers. (Berlin: 1892), p. 58.
8Ottmar Schreiber: Or Chester und Orchesterpraxis zwischen 1780 und 18so. (Berlin, 1938), pp. 248-249.
9Boston Musical Herald, August, 1881, p. 189.
10Ernest Newman (ed.): Memoirs of Hector Berlioz. (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1932), p. 197.
11For the stories of the British orchestras see:
Reginald Nettel: op. cit.
Adam Carse: The Orchestra from Beethoven to Berlioz. (Cambridge: W. Heffer, 1948.)
Robert Elkin: Royal Philharmonic. (London: Rider & Co., 1946.)
Robert Elkin: Queer?s Hall. (London: Rider & Co., 1944.)
12Alfred Oliver: The Encyclopedists as Critics of Music. (New York: Columbia University Press, 1947.)
13Ernest Newman: op. cit p. 76.
14Charles Burney: A General History of Music. (New York: Har-court, Brace & Co., 1935), Vol. II, p. 955.
15Thomas Busby: A Complete Dictionary of Music. (3d ed.; London: G. & W. B. Whittaker, 1819.)
16Charles Burney: The Present State of Music in Germany. (London: T. Becket & Co., 1773), pp. vi-vii.
17George Upton (ed.): Theodore Thomas. (Chicago: A. C. McClurg & Co., 1905), Vol. I, pp. 265 ff.
18“Report of St. Louis Correspondent.”Musical Courier, April 3, 1895, p. 31.
19Upton: op. cit., Vol. I, frontispiece.
20Robert Schumann: op. cit., Vol. I, p. 394.
21Musical Courier, April 29, 1891. Address by Theodore Thomas, on his departure from New York for Chicago. Reports on Bergmann do not always agree. See Upton, op. cit. Vol. I, p. 36.
22Charles E. Russell: The American Orchestra and Theodore Thomas. (Garden City: Doubleday, Page & Co., 1927.)
23H. E. Krehbiel: The Philharmonic Society of New York. (New York: Novello, Ewer & Co., 1892), p. 7.
1For histories of the Philharmonic-Symphony Society see:
James G. Huneker: The Philharmonic Society of New York—A Retrospect. (New York: Privately printed, 1917.)
Henry Krehbiel: The Philharmonic Society of New York, (New York and London: Novello, Ewer, 1892.)
John Erskine: The Philharmonic-Symphony Society of New York: Its First Hundred Years. (New York: Macmillan Co., I943-)
2Miles Birket Foster: op. cit., p. 4.
3Eduard Hanslick: Das Conzertwesen in Wien, pp. 316-317.
4John Erskine: op. cit., p. 2. Quoted by permission.
5R. Osgood Mason: Sketches and Impressions, Musical, Theatrical and Social. (New York and London: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1887), pp. 169-170.
6In Europe it was generally the opera which was supported by the State, although some orchestras received small subventions at times.
7Henry E. Krehbiel: op. tit., p. 41.:
8Ibid., p. 85.
9Ethel Rose Peyser: The House that Music Built—Carnegie Hall. (New York: Robert M. McBride & Co., 1936.)
10Musical Courier, August, 1910.
11For a gossipy but revealing account of the old Symphony Society, see Winthrop Sargeant: Geniuses, Goddesses and People. (New York: E. P. Dutton & Co., 1949), pp. 63 ff.
12Andrea Delia Corte: Toscanini (translated into French by A. Jacquemard). (Lausanne, 1947.)
13“Symphony Finance,”Fortune, March, 1935, pp. 78 ff.
14In 1916 he resigned his position in Italy because the audience remon strated against Wagner. He was succeeded by Molinari. In 1931 he was attacked by Fascisti in Bologna and physically injured. On April 1, 1933, his signature headed a protest to Hitler in behalf of the persecuted musicians. In June he declined to conduct in Bayreuth because of the “lamentable events which have wounded my feelings both as man and artist.”
15Musical Courier, December 25, 1934.
16As is, of course, known, Toscanini returned to the United States in 1937 in response to an invitation of NBC, which organized an orchestra expressly for broadcasting purposes. There was some apprehension that his broadcasts would interfere with the Philharmonic series. In deference to that fear, the NBC concerts were scheduled at first for Saturday nights, until distant cities with Saturday night subscription concerts protested.
17After de-Nazification proceedings, Furtwangler was officially cleared of collaboration. For a report of the earlier history see: Berta Geissmar: Tivo Worlds of Music, (New York: Creative Age Press,
18Musical Courier, May 29, 1937.
19Madeleine Goss: Bolero—The Life of Maurice Ravel. (New York: Tudor Publishing Co., 1945.)
See also Howard Taubmann: The Maestro. (NewYork: Simon and Schuster, 1951), pp. 177^178.
20Walter Damrosch: My Musical Life. (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1923), p. 22.
21Musical Record, Boston, April 9, 1881.
See also: Musical Courier, May 30, 1894, p. 32.
Edwin T. Rice: “Personal Recollections of Leopold Damrosch.” Musical Quarterly, Vol. 28 (1942), pp. 269-275.
22Musical Courier, March 24, 1927.
23M. A. DeWolfe Howe: The Boston Symphony Orchestra, 1881-1931. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1931), p. 16.
24Many of these data are culled from the pages of Dwighfs Journal of Music.
25Musical Record, October 29, 1881.
26The “fate” theme was frequently taken in slower tempo if the statement of the music critic of Watson’s Art Journal, March 12, 1870, is to be believed.
27Musical Courier, January 20, 1892 and October 29, 1902.
Ibid., March 8, 1893.
28Musical Courier, September 8, 1897.
29Musical Courier, December 29, 1898 and April 30, 1902.
30Musical Courier, January 10, 1900, p. 5.
31H. E. Krehbiel: Review of New. York Seasons, 1889-1890. (New York and London: Novello, Ewer & Co., 1890), pp. 61-66.
32Musical Record, November, 1890.
33Felix Weingartner: On Conducting (translated by Ernest Newman). (Leipzig, 1925.)
34Musical Courier, January 8, 1908.
35Ferdinand Pfohl: Artur Nikisch. (Hamburg, 1925.)
36jB oston Herald, February 17, 1927.
37Musical America, May 12, 1917.
38Walter Damrosch: op. cit., pp. 337 ff.
M. A. DeWolfe Howe: op. cit.
Olga Samaroff: An American Musician’s Diary. (New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1939), pp. 139 If.
Irving Lowens: “L’Affaire Muck, A Study in War Hysteria, 1917-18.”Musicology, Vol. I, No. 3.
Nicholas Slonimsky: Music Since 1900. (New York: W. W. Norton, 1938.) Assorted dates in 1918.
39Hugo Leichtentritt: Serge Koussevitzky: the Boston Symphony Orchestra and the New American Music. (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1946.)
Arthur Lourie: Serge Koussevitzky and His Epoch (translated by S. W. Pring). (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1931.)
Moses Smith: Koussevitzky. (New York: Allen, Towne, and Heath, I947-)
H. Earle Johnson: Symphony Hall. (Boston: Little, Brown & Co. 1950.)
40Boston Herald, April 24, 1949.
41Quoted in Geo. W. Cooke: John Sullivan Dwight, A Biography. (Boston: Small, Maynard Co., 1898), p. 227.
42North Philadelphia Musical Journal, December, 1887.
43Musical Record, July, 1887^.4.
44Following are the principal works on the life and work of Theodore Thomas:
George P. Upton: Musical Memories. (Chicago: A. C. McClurg & Co., 1908.)
George P. Upton (ed.): Theodore Thomas. 2 vols. (Chicago: McClurg, 1905.)
Rose Fay Thomas: Memoirs of Theodore Thomas. (New York: Moffat, Yard & Co., 1911.)
Charles E. Russell: The American Orchestra and Theodore Thomas. (Garden City: Doubleday, Page & Co., 1927.)
Philo A. Otis: The Chicago Symphony Orchestra; its Organization, Growth and Development. (Chicago: Clayton F. Summy, 1924.)
45Musical Courier, December 21, 1904, p. 21.
46Upton: op. cit., Vol. 1, Appendix.
47Henry E. Krehbiel: Review of New York Seasons, 1886-87. (New York: Novello, Ewer & Co., 1887.)
48Boston Musical Herald, June, 1880, p. 141.
49Dwighfs Journal of Music, February 15, 1879.
50Antoine Ysaye and Bertram Ratcliffe: Ysaye, His Life and Work. (London: Heinemann, 1947.)
51R. F. Eyer: “America’s Notable Orchestras.”Musical America, January 24, 1937.
For other histories of the Philadelpiha orchestra see:
Robert A. Gerson \ Music in Philadelphia. (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 1940.)
Frances A. Wister: Twenty-Five Years of the Philadelphia Orchestra, 1900-1925. (Philadelphia, 1925.)
R. L. F. McCombs: The Philadelphia Orchestra. (Philadelphia: Philadelphia Orchestra Association, 1947.)
The Philadelphia Orchestra, Fiftieth Anniversary Season, 1900-1950. (Philadelphia, 1950.)
52Philadelphia correspondent in Willis Musical World and Times, February 18, 1854.
53The Musical Fund Society, Charter and By-Laws. (Philadelphia, I930-)
L. C. Madeira and Philip Goepp: The Musical Fund Society. (Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co., 1896.)
54Edward Bok: The Americanization of Edward Bok. (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1924), Chapter 32.
55Philadelphia Orchestra Association, Fiftieth Anniversary Season, p. 14.
56Musical Courier, March 30,1916.
57Frances Wister: op. cit.
58Philadelphia Orchestra Association, Fiftieth Anniversary Season, P-32.
59McCombs: op. cit. Musical Courier, March 25, 1933.
60Musical America, October 25, 1929.
61Musical Courier, November 8, 1930.
62Musical America, January 8, 1927.
63Fortune (Magazine), March, 1935, pp. 81 ff.
64Ralph Hill (ed.): Music 1950. (Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin Books, 1950), p. 18.
65See: Ernst C. Krohn: “The Development of the Symphony Orchestra in St. Louis: An historical sketch,” Proceedings, Music Teachers National Association, 1924.
66The propriety of dating the founding of the symphony orchestra to the date of the founding of the St. Louis Choral Society (1880) is questionable. The orchestral repertoire in the present study dates to 1907, which some of the early programs after 1907 refer to as the “new series.”
67Leonora Wood Armsby: “The San Francisco Symphony Orchestra: First Decade.”California Historical Society Quarterly, Vol. XXV, No. 3, September, 1946, pp. 229-254.
68Adella Prentiss Hughes: Music is My Life. (Cleveland: World Publishing Co., 1947.)
69Caroline Estes Smith: The Philharmonic Orchestra of Los Angeles; the First Decade, 1919-1929. (Los Angeles: Privately printed, 1930.)
70Isabelle Morse Jones: Hollywood Bowl. (New York: G. Schirmer, 1936), pp. 39 and 67.
71Ibid., p. 5.
72Martha F. Bellinger: “Music in Indianapolis “Indiana Magazine of History, December, 1945, pp. 345-364; March, 1946, pp. 47-65.
73A Short History of the National Symphony Orchestra. (Washington, D. C.: Privately printed, 1949.) Hans Kindleds Programs with the National Symphony Orchestra. (Washington, D. C.: Privately printed, 1950.)
1Otto Kinkeldey: “Beginning of Beethoven in America,”Musical Quarterly, April, 1927, pp. 217 ff.
2Eric Blom: A Musical Postbag. (London: J. M. Dent, 1941), p. 22.
3Quoted in Musical Courier, December 9, 1891.
4Quoted in Rose Fay Thomas, op. cit., p. 79.
See also Henry T. Finck: Richard Wagner and His Works. (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1907), Vol. I, pp. 267-268.
5Henry T. Finck: Chopin and Other Essays. (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1910), p. 256.
6Charles Edward Russell: op. cit., pp. 98 ff.
Rose Fay Thomas: op. cit., pp. 111-117.
Henry T. Finck: Richard Wagner and His Works. (New York:
Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1907), Vol. II, p. 509.
Ernest Newman: Life of Richard Wagner. (New York: Alfred A, Knopf, 1941), Vol. IV, pp. 475, 542.
7Paul Henry Lang: “Background Music for Mein Kampf.” Saturday Review of Literature, January 20, 1945.
8Leon Stein: The Racial Thinking of Richard Wagner. (New York: Philosophical Library, 1950.)
Friedelind Wagner and Page Cooper: Heritage of Fire. (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1945), pp. xii ff.
9John H. Mueller and Kate Hevner: Trends in Musical Taste. (Bloomington: Indiana University Publications, 1942), p. 85.
10Eduard Devrient: My Recollections of Felix Mendelssohn (translated by Natalia Macfarren). (London: R. Bentley, 1869), p. 56.
11Gerhard Herz: J. S. Bach im Zeitalter des Rationalismus und der Frilhromantik. (Leipzig, 1936.)
12Friedrich Blume: Two Centuries of Bach, An Account of Changing Taste (translated by Stanley Godman). (London: Oxford University Press, 1950.)
N. Forkel: Uber J. S. Bach’s Leben, Runst und Runstwerke (translated by C.S.Terry). (London: 1920.)
E. Rebling: Die Soziologischen Grundlagen der Stilverwandlung der Musik in Dentschland um die mitte des 18 Jahrhunderts. (Saalfeld, 1935.)
13Ernest Newman (ed.): Memoirs of Hector Berlioz. (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1932), p. 324.
14Musical Courier, January 31, 1894, p. 7.
15Bruno Walter: Theme and Variations. (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1946), p. 227. (London: Hamish Hamilton Ltd.)
16Ludwig Geiger: Briefwechsel zwischen Goethe und Zelter. (Leipzig, 1902), Vol. II, Letters of April 5, April 21, June 9, 1827.
17Upton: op. cit., Vol. I, p. 212.
18Ibid., Vol. II, p. 107.
19Musical America, March 17, 1917.
20Ibid., November 11, 1916.
21The Schoenberg school protests the label of “atonality,” but it is still the most common designation. See Ren6 Leibowitz: Schoenberg and his School. (New York: Philosophical Library, 1950), p. 74.
1Musical America, May 5, 1917.
2Musical America, October 27, 1917.
3Willis Musical World and Times, March 4, 1854.
See also: John Tasker Howard: Our American Music. (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1946.)
4Willis Musical World and Times, February 18, 1854; February 19, 1853.
5United States Bureau of the Census: Census of 1850, p. c.
6Aaron Copland: Our New Music. (New York: Whittlesey House, 1941), pp. 132-134.
7Daniel Gregory Mason: Tune in America. (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1931), pp. 43-45.
Douglas Moore: “The Cause of Native Music.”Saturday Review of Literature, January 25, 1947, pp. 24 ff.
8The American Music Council classifies composers as native-born; foreign-born, living in the United States; and naturalized composers.
9Upton: op. cit., Vol. II, pp. 283, 286.
1Emily Anderson (tr. and ed.): Mozart’s Letters. (London: Macmillan & Co., 1938), Letters of January 14, 1878; November 1, 1777; September 26, 1781.
2Charles Burney: A General History of Music. (New York: Har-court, Brace & Co., 1935), Vol. I, p. 21.
3Richard Aldrich: Concert Life in New York, 1902-23. (New York: Putnam, 1941), p. 314.
4Upton: op. cit., Vol. I, p. 235.
H. T. Finck: Richard Wagner and His Works. (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1907), Vol. II, p. 511.
R. Osgood Mason: op. cit., pp. 199-200.
Ernest Newman: Richard Wagner. (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1937), Vol. II, p. 115.
5Upton: op. cit., Vol. I, p. 251.
6Henry T. Finck: “Music and Morals,” in Chopin and Other Essays. (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 19.10), pp. 143-182.
7Charles E. Russell: op. cit., p. vii.
8George W. Cooke: John Sullivan Dwight. (Boston: Small, Maynard Co., 1898), pp. 147, 151-152. “Introductory Statements,”Dwighfs Journal of Music, April 10, 1852, Vol. I, no. 1.
9William James: Psychology. (New York: Henry Holt & Co., 1890), Vol. I, pp. 126 ff.
10Eduard Hanslick: Concerte,Componisten,und Virtuosen. (2. Aufl., Berlin: 1886), p. 312.
11Upton: op. cit., Vol. I, p. 289.
Reginald Nettel: The Orchestra in England, A Social History. (London: J. Cape, 1946), p. 103.
12Upton: op. cit., Vol. I, p. 104.
13Remark attributed to Rudolph Ganz, conductor of the St, Louis Symphony Orchestra, November, 1925.
14In the prospectus of the New York Philharmonic for 1870-71, we read significantly: “Inasmuch as compositions in that class can seldom be fully appreciated when heard but once, the society has, for many years, made the rehearsals preceding each concert open to the public. Scale for admission: First Rehearsal and Second Rehearsal, 50 cents; Third Rehearsal, $1. Regular Concert, $2.”
15E. Creuzberg: Die Gewandhausconzerte zu Leipzig, 1781-1931. (Leipzig, 1931), p. 96.
Percy Scholes: Mirror of Music. (London: Novello & Co., 1948), frontispiece.
Adam Caxse: The Orchestra from Beethoven to Berlioz. (Cambridge: W. Heffer, 1948), p. 161.
16Madeira and Goepp: op. cit., p. 144.
17Otis: op. cit., p. 11.
18Richard Hoffman: Some Musical Recollections of Fifty Years. (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1910), pp. 63-64.
19Willis Musical World and Times, December 3, 1853.
20Eduard Hanslick: Geschichte des Coneertwesens in Wien. (Vienna, 1869), p. 95.
21Musical Courier, November 23, 1898; July 30, 1902.
22August Schmidt: Musikalische Reisemomente auf einer Wanderungdurch Norddeutschland. (Hamburg, 1846.)
23Willis Musical World and Times, December 3, 1853.
24Hector Berlioz: Treatise on Orchestration. (London, 1856.)
25M. A. DeWolfe Howe: op. cit., p. 32.
26Reginald Nettel: The Orchestra in England. (London: Jonathan Cape, 1946), p. 174,
27August Schmidt: op. cit.
28Musical Record, October 29,1881.
29See photograph of Theodore Thomas orchestra in Upton, op. cit., Vol. II, p. 82; and seating plan in Rose Fay Thomas, op. cit., p. 372.
H. E. Krehbiel: How to Listen to Music. (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 10th ed. 1900), p. 76.
30J. J. Rousseau: Dictionaire de Musique, “Orchestre.” (Paris, 1768.)
31For a photograph see: The Philadelphia Orchestra, Fiftieth Anniversary. (Philadelphia: The Philadelphia Orchestra Association, 1950), P-3*-
32Musical Courier, January 2, 1932.
33Musical Courier, July 31, 1895; September 3, 1925.
34Sir Henry Wood: About Conducting. (London: Sylvan Press, 1945), p. 115.
35Sir Thomas Beecham: “The Position of Women” in Vogue’s First Reader. (Garden City Publishing Co.: Halcyon House, 1944), p. 420.
36Emily Anderson: op. cit.
37Reginald Nettel: op. cit., p. 171.
Robert Elkin: The Royal Philharmonic, pp. 43 ff.
38Hector Berlioz: op. cit.
39Ernest Newman: Life of Wagner. (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1937), Vol. I, pp. 142-143-
40Amy Fay: Music Study in Germany. (New York: Macmillan Co., 1909), pp. 108 ff.
41Ludwig Spohr: Autobiography. (London: Longmans Green, 1865), P-54-■■ ‘ ■ ‘
42Eduard Devrient: op. cit., p. 59.
43Percy Scholes: op. cit., frontispiece.
Adam Carse: op. cit., pp. 208, 232.
44Spohr: op. cit., pp. 54—55; 81-
45Devrient: op. cit., pp. 60-61.
46Richard Hoffman: op. cit., pp. 70-71.
47Schumann: op. cit., Vol. I, p. 37.
48Eduard Hanslick: Concerte, Componisten und Virtuosen, 1870-1885. (2 Aufl., Berlin: 1886), p. 49.
49Georg Henschel -. Personal Recollections of Johannes Brahms. (Boston: R. G. Badger, 1907), p. 84.
50Caroline Estes Smith: op. cit., pp. 181-182.
51Musical America, September 3, 1927, p. 16; August 30, 1928; August 31,1929; June 11,1932.
Joseph Szigeti: With Strings Attached. (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1947), p. 81.
Israel Nestyeff: Sergei Prokofieff. (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1946), p. 102.
52Hugo Goldschmidt: Die Lehre von der Vokalen Ornamentik des 77. und 18. Jahrhunderts bis in die Zeit Glucks. (Charlottenburg, 1907), p. 156.
53William F. Apthorp: By the Way. (Boston: Copeland and Day, 1898), Vol. I, p. 50.
54Wilhelm Furtwangler: Gesprache uber Musik. (Zurich: 1948), pp. 100 ff.
55Charles Burney: The Present State of Music in France and Italy. (2d ed.; London: T. Becket & Co., 1773), p. 160.
56Gerald Abraham: This Modern Stuff. (London: Duckworth, 1946), P-56
57Musical Courier, October 7, 1896,
58Musical Courier, October 17, 1900.
59Paul S. Carpenter: Music, an Art and a Business, (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1950.)
60Memorandum #5, Symphony Orchestra League: Charleston, West Virginia, November 30, 1950. -
61Arthur Judson: “American Orchestras,” in Musical America, February, 1951, pp. 8 ff.
62The Arts Enquiry: Music, A Report on Musical Life in England. Political and Economic Planning, London, 1949.
63Margaret Grant and H. S. Hettinger: America’s Symphony Orchestras. (New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1940.)
64Musical Courier, March 15, 1893.
65Musical Courier, December 20, 1893.
66Mrs. Adolph Brodsky, the wife of the concertmaster, places this interpretation on the incident. She asserts that Damrosch deliberately maneuvered the musicians into a strike for the purpose of voiding their contracts, which would then be renewed on easier terms for himself. See Mrs. Adolph Brodsky: Recollections of a Russian Home. (2d ed., London: Sherratt & Hughes, 1914), pp. 187-202.
67Musical Courier, May 30, 1906.
68Musical Courier, December 3, 1902.
69Musical Courier, August 4, 1927.
70Musical Courier, December 15,1897.
71Musical Courier, October 7, 1896.
72Otis: op. cit., p. 30.
73Musical Courier, May 5,1921.
74Musical Courier, November 4,1904.
75Emily Anderson: op. cit., Vol. Ill, p. 1072.
76Carl Krebs: Meister des Takstocks. (Berlin: 1919), p. 53.
77Eduard Hanslick: Geschichte des Coneertwesens in Wien, p. 59.
78Divighfs Journal of Music, July 10, 1875.
79Musical Courier, January 1, 1896.
80Henry T. Finck: Chopin and Other Essays, p. 243.
81G. B. Shaw: Music in London, 1890 to 1894. (London: Constable & Co., 1932), Vol. I, p. 5.
82Related to the author by a former member of the Lamoureux orchestra.
83Musical Courier, June 20, 1900, p. 27.
84H. M. Schletterer: Johann Friedrich Reichhardt: Sein.Leben und Seine Thatigkeit. (Leipzig, 1864), p. 363.
85Percy Scholes: The Mirror of Music, 1844-1944. (London: Novello & Co., 1947), Vol. I, p. 219.
86Musical Courier, January 17, 1900.
87Eduard Hanslick: Geschichte des Conzertwesens in Wien, pp. 152-
88Madeira arid Goepp: op. pp. 66-67.
89Musical Courier, January 3,1894, p. 22.
90Creuzburg: op. cit., p. 107.
91Boston Musical Herald, March, 1887, p. 71.
92Musical Courier, February 17, 1904.
93Apthorp: op. cit., Vol. II, p. 62.;
94Boston Musical Herald, January, 1891, p. 5.
95Musical Courier, March 4, 1896.
96Upton: op. cit., Vol. II, p. 19.
97Hanslick: op. cit., pp. 55-56.
1John H. Mueller: “Is Art the Product of its Age?”Social Forces, March, 1935, pp. 367-375.
Idem: “Theories of Aesthetic Appreciation” in Studies in Appreciation of Art. University of Oregon Publications, Vol. IV, no. 6, February, 1934.
Idem: “Methods of Aesthetic Measurement.”American Journal of Sociology, January, 1946, pp. 276-282. Paul R. Farnsworth: Musical Taste, Its Measurement and Cultural Nature. (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1950.)
2Kate Hevner: “The Aesthetic Experience; A Psychological Description.”Psychological Review, May, 1937, pp. 245-263.
Max Schoen: Psychology of Music. (New York: Ronald Press, 1940.)
George Boas: A Primer for Critics. (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1937.)
3Donald Tovey: The Main Stream of Music and Other Essays. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1949), p. 373.
4Curt Sachs: The Commonwealth of Art. (New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1946), p. 326.
5Karl Marx: “A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy.” Quoted in: Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels: Literature and Art. (New York: International Publishers, 1947), pp. 17-20.
6Charles Lalo: Esthetique. (Paris, 1927), p. 3.
For a brief critical summary of Lalo’s aesthetic see:
Katherine Gilbert: Studies in Recent ^ertto/s. (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1927.)
John H. Mueller: “The Folkway of Art: An Analysis of the Social Theories of Art.”American Journal of Sociology, September, 1938, pp. 222-238.
7Francis Perkins: “Favorites of 25 Years on Orchestral Programs in New York.”Musical America, February, 1950.
8Benjamin Cardozo: The Paradoxes of Legal Science. (New York: Columbia University Press, 1928), pp. 1-2.