|Alexander, Richard D.||Chapter 10|
|Altmann, Stuart A.||Chapters 5 and 18|
|Bastian, Jarvis||Chapter 20|
|Bateson, Gregory||Chapter 22|
|Blair, W. Frank||Chapter 14|
|Busnel, Rene-Guy||Chapter 8|
|Diebold, A. Richard, Jr.||Chapter 19|
|Griffin, Donald R.||Chapter 9|
|Frings, Hubert||Chapters 12 and 24|
|Frings, Mable||Chapters 12 and 24|
|Hatch, Jeremy J.||Chapter 3|
|Hockett, Charles F.||Chapter 5|
|Hooker, Barbara I.||Chapter 15|
|Klopfer, Peter H.||Chapter 3|
|Lenneberg, Eric H.||Chapter 21|
|Marler, Peter R.||Chapter 7|
|Mehan, Sybillyn||Editorial assistant|
|Moles, Abraham A.||Chapter 23|
|Poulter, Thomas C.||Chapter 17|
|Scott, John Paul||Chapter 2|
|Sebeok, Thomas A.||Chapter 1|
|Smith, W. John||Chapter 4|
|Tavolga, William N.||Chapter 13|
|Tembrock, Günter||Chapter 16|
|Wenner, Adrian M.||Chapter 11|
|Wilson, Edward O.||Chapter 6|
Richard D. Alexander (1929-) was born in Illinois and attended Blackburn College, Illinois State Normal University, and The Ohio State University, where he received his doctorate in entomology (1956). After a year as a Post-doctoral Research Fellow of The Rockefeller Foundation, he joined the faculty of The University of Michigan, where he is presently Professor of Zoology and Curator of Insects. His major research interests have been the biology and taxonomy of crickets, katydids, and cicadas, and a concern with animal communication and the evolution of behavior developing as outgrowths of these systematic studies.
Stuart A. Altmann (1930-) received his B.A. and M.A. degrees in zoology from the University of California at Los Angeles, and his Ph.D. in biology from Harvard University. He was a biologist at the Laboratory of Neuroanatomical Sciences at the National Institutes of Health during 1956-1958 and in 1960. He was a member of the faculty of the University of Alberta, Canada, from 1960 until 1965. Since that time he has been sociobiologist at the Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center, in Atlanta. His research deals with animal societies, and especially with the ecology and behavior of free-ranging primates. He is particularly interested in social communication and in mathematical models of social systems. He has carried out research expeditions to Mexico (1954), Panama (1955), West Indies (1956-1958), Canadian arctic (1961), and East Africa (1963-1964).
Jarvis Bastian (1930-) received his training in psychology at the University of Minnesota, where he earned his doctorate (1956). He studied linguistics at Columbia University. He has taught psychology at The University of Michigan and at the University of California, Santa Barbara, and is presently Associate Professor of Psychology at the University of California, Davis. He has held a fellowship in the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, where association with animal behaviorists led to his interest in animal communication. He has done research in phonetics at Haskins Laboratories and currently is working on an assortment of problems, ranging from the social communication of bottlenosed dolphins to the whistled speech of Turkish villagers, into which he has been led by his psychological, linguistic, and zoological interests.
Gregory Bateson (1904-) was born in England and took Natural Seience Tripos in Cambridge University. This was followed by training in an־ thropology. He has done anthropological field work in New Guinea and Bali, contributing especially to the field of culture and personality. He was a fellow of St. John’s College, Cambridge, and subsequently has held teaching and research appointments at The New School for Social Research, at Harvard University, and at the University of California. In 1948 he began to study communicational aspects of psychiatry, working in this area at the Veterans Administration Hospital, Palo Alto, California, from 1949 until 1963. For this work he was awarded the Frieda Fromm Reichmann Award for research in schizophrenia. For the last three years, he has been working on communicational problems of the cetacea, first under the Communication Research Institute, St. Thomas, V.l., and currently with The Oceanic Institute, Hawaii. He has published Naven, Communication: The Social Matrix of Psychiatry, with Jurgen Ruesch, and Balinese Character, with Margaret Mead.
W. Frank Blair (1912-), a native Texan, received his doctoral training at The University of Michigan in vertebrate zoology. There he was a Research Associate in the Laboratory of Vertebrate Biology until 1946, working on ecological and evolutionary problems of small mammals, particularly Peromyscus. He has been a member of the Zoology Faculty of the University of Texas for the past twenty years, where he is Professor of Zoology, Director of Research on Vertebrate Speciation, and Director of the Brackenridge Field Laboratory. He has served as President of the Society for the Study of Evolution, the Ecological Society of America, the Southwestern Association of Naturalists, and the Texas Herpetological Society, and is now also the U.S. National Chairman of the International Biological Program. He has pioneered the way in investigations of amphibian bio-acoustics, and of the use of nonmorphological attributes in the study of amphibian evolution.
René-Guy Busnel (1914-), a native of France, received his degree at the Faculty of Science in Paris. As a research worker at the National Center for Scientific Research from 1935 to 1948, he worked in the field of comparative physiology on the biochemical physiology of invertebrates and fish. In 1949 he organized and became Director of the Acoustic Physiology Laboratory at the National Institute of Agronomic Research, investigating acoustic behavior throughout the animal kingdom, primarily in amphibians, insects, birds, and land and marine mammals., In 1961 he gave a course in psychophysiology at the Sorbonne. He has been President of the Zoological Society of France and President of the Society of Biology (Orsay branch). He is presently President of the Group of Acousticians of French Language, and President of Naturalia and Biologia. He has organized numerous international symposia on animal acoustic behavior (insects, 1953; mice, 1958; birds, 1962; biological sonar, 1966). He is the author of numerous publications and the editor of Animal Acoustic Behavior, a volume which sums up much of the Institute’s work.
A. Richard Diebold, Jr. (1934-) early committed himself to interdisciplinary research on language and grammatical theory, pursuing an undergraduate career in linguistics, anthropology, and psychology at Yale University, and later received his doctorate in anthropology from Yale (1961). From 1961 until 1966 he was Assistant Professor of Social Anthropology and Linguistics in the Department of Social Relations at Harvard University. In 1966-1967 he was Acting Associate Professor of Anthropology and Linguistics at Stanford University, and presently he is a Fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences. His field research has been sociolinguistic in topic (concerned especially with multilingualism) and conducted principally in Mexico. Past psycholinguistic research has been supported in part by grants from the National Institute of Mental Health, the Social Science Research Council, the Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research, and the Office of Education. His investigations are centered on experimental and comparative research in the area of communicative behavior (verbal and nonverbal human communication, and nonhuman primate communicative behavior). His main theoretical concern is to elucidate and integrate conflicting nativist and empiricist interpretations regarding the ontogenetic and phylogenetic emergence of human communicative behavior.
Donald R. Griffin (1915-) was born in Southampton, New York and earned his B S., M.A., and Ph.D. degrees at Harvard University. He has held teaching appointments at Cornell University, and at Harvard University, where he served as Chairman of the Department of Biology, and at The Rockefeller University, where he is at present Professor, and Director of the Institute for Research in Animal Behavior, jointly sponsored by The Rockefeller University and the New York Zoological Society. He is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the National Academy of Sciences. His principal scientific papers deal with bird navigation and the migrations, acoustic orientation, and ultrasonic signals of bats. Among his books are Listening in the Dark, for which he was awarded the Daniel Giraud Elliot Medal of the National Academy of Sciences, and Bird Migration, for which he received the 1965 Phi Beta Kappa Award in Science.
Hubert Frings (1914-) studied at the Pennsylvania State University, the University of Oklahoma, and the University of Minnesota, where he received his doctorate. After serving as insect physiologist with the U.S. Army Chemical Service, as well as several years of teaching, in 1947 he returned to the Pennsylvania State University as Professor of Zoology. In 1961 he joined the faculty of the University of Hawaii, leaving in 1966 to go to the University of Oklahoma, where he is now Professor of Zoology. His major research interests are in the sensory physiology of insects, the behavior of insects and birds, the effects of high intensity sounds on animals, and bio-acoustics generally.
Mable Frings studied at the Pennsylvania State University and the University of Oklahoma. After teaching in a number of small colleges and junior colleges, she became Research Associate in Zoology at the Pennsylvania State University in 1949. In 1961 she was appointed Research Associate in Zoology at the University of Hawaii, leaving there in 1966 for the same position at the University of Oklahoma. Her investigations of animal behavior parallel those of H. Frings, with the addition of a special interest in bibliography.
Jeremy J. Hatch (1937-), a native of England, received his undergraduate training at Cambridge, and completed his doctoral work at Duke University. Field work has taken him to South America and to the Bahamas. He is now a Fellow at the Rockefeller University, where his research is concerned with the ontogeny and patterning of behavior.
Charles F. Hockett (1916-) took degrees from Ohio State and Yale Universities. Since 1946 he has been on the faculty of Cornell University, where he is now Professor of Linguistics and Anthropology. In 1964 he served as President of the Linguistic Society of America. His publications include a reference work on phonology and an introductory textbook in linguistics; his articles on animal communication are listed in the bibliography of the Hockett-Altmann paper in this volume.
Barbara I. Hooker was graduated from the University of London in 1956 with honors in zoology. After working in industry studying the effects of pesticides on mammals and birds, she became Research Assistant to Professor W. H. Thorpe, F.R.S. Director of the Madingley Sub-Department of Animal Behaviour, University of Cambridge. She is currently studying for her doc־ torate at New Hall College, Cambridge.
Peter H. Klopfer (1930-) majored in zoology and psychology at the University of California, Los Angeles, and received his doctorate in zoology from Yale in 1958. During this period he also spent two years as a high school science teacher and one year with W. H. Thorpe at Cambridge. He is currently Professor at Duke University, where he helped establish the Field Station for Animal Behavior Studies, of which he is Director. He is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and of The Animal Behavior Society, and holds a Career Development Award from the National Institutes of Health. His primary interests are in ecological aspects of behavior and in mechanisms of early learning, particularly the formation of mother-young bonds. His books include Behavioral Aspects of Ecology and An Introduction to Animal Behavior: Ethology’s First Century (with J. P. Hailman).
Eric H. Lenneberg (1921֊) was born in Germany and spent the latter part of his childhood in Brazil. He has lived in the United States since 1945. He did his undergraduate work in liberal arts and linguistics at the University of Chicago and earned his doctorate in psychology and linguistics at Harvard University (1956). From then until 1959 he did postgraduate work in neurological sciences at Harvard and, subsequently, was appointed Assistant Professor of Psychology in the Department of Psychiatry at Harvard Medical School; he is at present Professor of Psychology at The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. His research over the last twelve years has been devoted to language development under conditions of disease and environmental deprivation. He has written several articles concerning speech and language in the areas of medicine and social science, and is the author of The Biological Foundations of Language.
Peter R. Marler (1928-), a native of England, did doctoral work in plant ecology at the University of London before changing course to animal behavior. Under the influence of R. A. Hinde and W. H. Thorpe at the University of Cambridge, he became interested in problems of social communication in birds. In 1957 he joined the faculty of the University of California, Berkeley as Assistant Professor in the Department of Zoology, teaching animal behavior. In 1966 he was appointed Professor at The Rockefeller University, and a Senior Research Zoologist of The New York Zoological Society. His research interests have widened to include primates as well as birds, and in 1964-1965, with the aid of a fellowship from the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation, he did field work in Uganda on the vocal behavior of monkeys. His writings deal mainly with the physical analysis of animal sounds, the role of genetic and environmental factors in their development, and general problems of animal communication. Together with W. J. Hamilton III, he has published a general textbook on animal behavior.
Sybillyn Mehan was born in Albany, New York. She earned her B.A. in literature at Bennington College, Vermont, her M.A. in psychology at San Jose State College, California, and is now continuing her studies at the University of California, Santa Barbara.
Abraham A. Moles (1920-) took the doctorate in mathematical physics on the physical structure of musical signals, at the Sorbonne, Paris. His interest in the social sciences then led to the doctorate in philosophy on creative processes and on the information theory of perception. He is at present Professor at the University of Strasbourg and at the Hochschule für Gestaltung, Ulm, Germany. He has worked on the application of information and system theory and, in the social sciences, sociometry, linguistics, and perception. He has published various books on the creative process in music, the psychology of perception, the sociology of culture, and on phonetics.
Thomas C. Poulter (1897-) earned his Ph.D. degree at the University of Chicago (1933) and his Sc.D. degree from Iowa Wesleyan College (1935). He joined the faculty of Iowa Wesleyan College as head of the Department of Chemistry in 1925, and, in 1933, left his duties as head of the Division of Physical Sciences, Mathematics and Astronomy at Iowa Wesleyan. He held a fellowship from the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation, and was Senior Scientist and Second-in-command of the Byrd Antarctic Expedition II (1933-1935). He was the first director of the Armour Research Foundation in Chicago, where he served (1936-1948) until he was appointed Associate Director of Stanford Research Institute. During World War II, he served as special technical consultant to the Navy, the Office of Scientific Research and Development, the National Defense Research Committee, and the Columbia University Underwater Sound Laboratory. He was awarded a special Gold Medal by the National Geographic Society, April 1937, and special Congressional Medals in 1940 and 1947 for his scientific work in the Antarctic. He is a Registered Professional Engineer of Illinois and California. As Senior Scientific Advisor of Stanford Research Institute and Director of its Biological Sonar Laboratory, he was the first to show that sea lions used an echolocation system, and he has conducted extensive research in the sonar and communication of marine mammals in both the Arctic and Antarctic.
John Paul Scott (1909-) did his undergraduate work at the University of Wyoming, and thereafter was a Rhodes Scholar at Oxford University, where he received a First Class in the Honors School of Zoology. He earned his Ph.D. in zoology at the University of Chicago (1935), and for ten years thereafter was Chairman of the Department of Zoology at Wabash College. He was head of the Division of Behavior Studies at the Jackson Laboratory, where he did research for twenty years working with mice, goats, and dogs. At present he is Research Professor of Psychology and Director of the Center for Research on Social Behavior at Bowling Green State University. He was a Fellow of the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences in 1963-1964. Genetics and the development of social behavior in mammals have been central in his work, and he has been particularly interested in problems relating to critical periods in early experience.
Thomas A. Sebeok (1920-) was born in Budapest and has lived in the United States since 1937. He earned his doctorate (in 1945) at Princeton University. In 1943 he joined the Indiana University faculty, where he is at present Distinguished Professor of Linguistics, Professor of Anthropology, and Chairman of the Research Center for the Language Sciences. He has held fellowships from the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation and the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, and was Senior Postdoctoral Fellow of the National Science Foundation in 1966-1967. In 1964 he was Director of the Linguistic Institute of the Linguistic Society of America. During the last few years, he has been working in the field of semiotics, including especially zoosemiotics, and is Editor-in-Chief of Studies in Semiotics—Recherches Sémiotiques. He is a founding member of the Animal Behavior Society and at present on its Executive Committee.
W. John Smith (1934-) is a native of Canada and did his undergraduate work in biology at Carleton University, Ottawa. He earned his doctorate at Harvard University (1961), and spent the next three years associated with that university in a postdoctoral capacity. Much of this time was spent in South America, studying the evolutionary radiation of the bird family Tyrannidae. In 1965 he joined the faculty of the University of Pennsylvania as Assistant Professor in the Department of Biology. He is a consultant of the Penrose Research Laboratory of the Zoological Society of Philadelphia, and as honorary research associate of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. The comparative study of animal communication is now his major research interest, although he continues to develop research in other areas of animal behavior.
William N. Tavolga (1922-), a native of New York City, graduated with honors from the City College of New York. He earned his doctorate at New York University (1949); his dissertation was on the embryology of fishes. He joined the faculty of the Department of Biology at the City College of the City University of New York in 1944, where he is presently Professor. He was appointed Research Associate in the Department of Animal Behavior at the American Museum of Natural History in 1953, and much of his research on behavior of fishes is carried out at the Museum and at various marine biological stations in Florida and the Bahamas. He has organized two symposia on marine bio-acoustics, and serves as a consultant to the U.S. Naval Training Device Center on problems relating to marine animal sounds. Since 1955 his primary research interest has been in sound production and hearing in fishes, and his studies have been supported by the Office of Naval Research and the National Science Foundation.
Günter Tembrock (1918-) was born in Berlin, where he studied zoology at the University of Berlin from 1937 until 1941. Since 1945 he has been a member of the Zoological Institute of Humboldt University, and in 1959 he was appointed Deputy Director of the Institute. In 1961 he was elevated to the grade of Professor. Since 1948 he has worked in the field of ethology, and more recently bio-acoustics has claimed his interest. As Professor at Humboldt University, he lectures in general and special zoology.
Adrian M. Wenner (1928-), a native of Minnesota, studied electronics in the U.S. Navy and was graduated from Gustavus Adolphus College in Minnesota with an emphasis in mathematics. During his college training he also studied bee culture and began studying biology at Chico State College in California, where he received his M.A. Subsequently, he continued graduate work in zoology at The University of Michigan, where he earned his doctorate (1961). In 1960 he joined the faculty of the University of California, Santa Barbara, in the Department of Biological Sciences and is at present Associate Professor of Biology.
Edward O. Wilson (1929-) was born in Alabama and did his undergraduate at the University of Alabama. After a year of graduate work at the University of Tennessee, he went on to earn his doctorate in biology at Harvard University. In 1953 he became a Junior Fellow of the Harvard Society of Fellows and has served on the faculty ever since; he is now Professor of Zoology. His research centers on the biology of the social insects, especially the ants. His interest in the general features of chemical communication stemmed originally from experimental studies on the behavior of these insects.