I offer special thanks to Professor Dallas W. Smythe, University of Saskatchewan, Regina, for the encouragement and stimulation he provided during the early years of this study.
An expression of gratitude also is due the Research Board of the University of Illinois. Through its two grants, I was able to spend more than a year in western Europe gathering material which made this study possible. I am indebted also to the University of Illinois Institute of Communications Research and its director, Howard S. Maclay, as well as to the Department of Journalism and its head, Jay W. Jensen, for the support, moral and otherwise, given during the last two years.
Dr. Gertrude Robinson read the manuscript and made many helpful suggestions. Albert Kreiling, Kiyoshi Nagata, and Sidney Robinovitch, as research assistants over the years, were invaluable for tracking down elusive bits of information and for verifying statistics and sources. Patricia Johnson turned heavily marked copy into readable form.
Finally, I want to express a large measure of appreciation to my wife, Denise, because her consideration and patience truly have been boundless. As if these qualities are not enough, she also translated materials from Dutch and German and reviewed my own translations of French.
Claire helped too.
T. H. G.