LINDSAY ANDERSON (1923- ), British director; contributed to the Free Cinema movement of British documentary. His best-known film is This Sporting Life (1963).
KENNETH ANGER: one of America’s leading avant-garde film-makers. His work includes: Fireworks (1947), Inauguration of the Pleasure Dome (1954), Scorpio Rising (1962-63), and Kustom Kar Kommandos (work in progress).
MICHELANGELO ANTONIONI (1912- ), Italian director. His films include: Il Grido (1957), L’Avventura (1959), La Notte (1960), L’Eclisse (1962), and Il Deserto Rosso (1964).
J. A. BARDEM (1922- ), Spanish director. His films include: Death of a Cyclist (1955) and La Venganza (1957).
INGMAR BERGMAN (1918- ), Swedish director. His many films include : Sawdust and Tinsel (1953), Smiles of a Summer Night (1955), The Seventh Seal (1956), Wild Strawberries (1957), The Virgin Spring (1959), and The Silence (1963).
LUIS BUÑUEL (1900- ), Spanish-born director; has worked infrequently in Spain, extensively in Mexico, and more recently in France. Among his numerous films are: Un Chien Andalou (made in collaboration with Salvador Dali, 1928), L’Age d’Or (1930), Los Olvidados (1950), El (1952), The Criminal Life of Archibaldo de la Cruz (1955), Nazarin (1958), Viridiana (1961), and Diary of a Chambermaid (1963).
CHARLES CHAPLIN (1889- ), British-born actor and director; the world’s most famous comedian. Most of his films have been made in the United States, and since 1915 he has directed every movie in which he has appeared. Among his many films are: The Kid (1920), The Gold Rush (1925), City Lights (1931), Modern Times (1936), The Great Dictator (1940), Monsieur Verdoux (1947), Limelight (1952), A King in New York (1957), and Countess from Hong Kong (1966).
JEAN COCTEAU (1899-1963), French director. His films include: Blood of a Poet (1930), Beauty and the Beast (1945), and Orpheus (1949).
CARL TH. DREYER (1889- ), Danish director; best known for his Passion of Joan of Arc (1928), Vampyr (1931), Day of Wrath (1943), and Ordet (1954). His most recent film is Gertrud (1964).
SERGEI M. EISENSTEIN (1898-1948), the greatest of Soviet film directors and a leading theoretician of the art and technique of motion pictures. His films include: Strike (1924), The Battleship Potemkin (1925), October (1927), The General Line (1929), the unfinished Que Viva Mexico! (1931), Alexander Nevsky (1938), and two parts of Ivan the Terrible (1945-46).
FEDERICO FELLINI (1920- ), Italian director. His best-known films are: La Strada (1954), The Nights of Cabiria (1957), La Dolce Vita (1959), 8V2 (1963), and Juliet of the Spirits (1964).
ROBERT J. FLAHERTY (1884-1951), American pioneer of the documentary film. His most celebrated motion pictures are: Nanook of the North (1921-22), Moana (1926), Tabu (1929), Man of Aran (1934), and Louisiana Story (1948).
D. W. GRIFFITH (1875-1948), America’s first great motion picture director, the “Father of Cinematographic Art,” whose major films include: Birth of a Nation (1915), Intolerance (1916), Broken Blossoms (1919), and Way Down East (1920).
CECIL HEPWORTH: (1874-1953), pioneer British director and one of the founders of the British film industry. His best-known films were: Rescued by Rover (1905) and two versions (1916 and 1923) of Comin’ through the Rye. See further his autobiography, Came the Dawn (London, 1951).
ALFRED HITCHCOCK (1899- ), British-born director, often called the “Master of Suspense.” His many famous films include: Blackmail (1929), The Lady Vanishes (1938), Saboteur (1942), Lifeboat (1944), Spellbound (1945), Strangers on a Train (1951 ), Dial M for Murder (1953), Rear Window (1953), Vertigo (1958), Psycho (1960), The Birds (1963), and The Torn Curtain (1965).
AKIRA KUROSAWA (1910- ), leading Japanese director. His film Rashomon (1950) was the first Japanese motion picture to receive widespread attention and acclaim in the Western world. His numerous other films include: Living (1952), The Seven Samurai (1954), The Lower Depths (1957), Throne of Blood (1957), The Bad Sleep Well (1959), Yojimbo (1961), Sanjuro (1962), and The High and the Low (1962).
FRITZ LANG (1890- ), distinguished Austrian director whose career as film-maker began in 1919. His silent films include: Dr. Mabuse, the Gambler (1922), The Nibelungen (in two parts, 1924), Metropolis (1926), and Woman in the Moon. His earliest sound films, M (1931) and The Testament of Dr. Mabuse (1932), were, like all his silent films, made in Germany. After fleeing from the Nazis he settled in Hollywood, where, during the period 1936-1956, he made numerous films, including: Fury (1936), You Only Live Once (1937), Hangmen Also Die (1942), Woman in the Window (1944), Scarlet Street (1945), and The Big Heat (1953). Since his return to Germany, in 1956, he has made several films, including The 1000 Eyes of Dr. Mabuse (1960).
DAVID LEAN (1908- ), British director. His films include: Brief Encounter (1945), Great Expectations (1946), Oliver Twist (1947), The Bridge on the River Kwai (1957), Lawrence of Arabia (1962), and Doctor Zhivago (1964).
LOUIS LUMIÈRE (1864-1948), French film pioneer; brother of Auguste Lumière (1862-1954), with whom he gave the first public motion picture demonstration in 1895. They named their apparatus the “Cinematograph.”
EDWIN S. PORTER (1869-1941), pioneer American director, discovered some of the basic elements of film language and the fundamentals of editing as a means of storytelling through motion pictures. Between 1902 and 1910 he made about 600 films, the most famous being The Life of an American Fireman (1902) and The Great Train Robbery (1903).
SATYAJIT RAY (1922- ), leading Indian director, best known for his “Apu” trilogy, comprising Pather Panchali (1954), Aparajito (1956), and The World of Apu (1959). His other films include: The Music Room (1958) and Devi (1960).
JEAN RENOIR (1894- ), French director, son of the artist, Jean Renoir. He has worked in France, Italy, the United States, and India. His films include: Une Partie de Campagne (1936), La Grande Illusion (1937), La Règle du Jeu (1939), The Southerner (1946), Diary of a Chambermaid (1946), The River (1950), French Can-can (1954), and Le Déjeuner sur l’Herbe (1959).
ALAIN RESNAIS (1922- ), French director. His films include: Night and Fog (1955), Hiroshima Mon Amour (1959), Last Year in Marienbad (1961), and Muriel (1963).
TONY RICHARDSON (1928- ), British director; began film-making as part of the Free Cinema movement. His films include: Look Back in Anger (1958), The Entertainer (1960), A Taste of Honey (1962), Loneliness of the Long-Distance Runner (1962), Tom Jones (1963), and The Loved One (1964).
MACK SENNETT (1880-1960), American producer; master of slapstick comedy during the silent film era. The stars of Sennett’s numerous movies included: the Keystone Kops, Ben Turpin, Chester Conklin, Mabel Normand, “Fatty” Arbuckle, Larry Semon, Louise Fazenda, Harry Langdon, Charlie Chaplin, Buster Keaton, and W. C. Fields.
JOSEF VON STERNBERG (1894- ), Austrian-born director; worked mainly in the United States. His films include: The Salvation Hunters (1925), The Last Command (1928), The Docks of New York (1928), The Blue Angel (made in Germany, 1930), An American Tragedy (1931 ), The Scarlet Empress (1934), The Devil is a Woman (1935), and The Saga of Anatahan (1953).
ERICH VON STROHEIM (1885-1957), Austrian-born director and actor. During the 1920’s he combined a career as director of powerful works of film realism with that of actor (usually in villainous roles). As an actor he became known as “The Man You Love to Hate.” Stroheim’s major films as a director were: Foolish Wives (1922), Greed (1924), The Wedding March (1927), and Queen Kelly (1928). Stroheim’s career as an actor continued well into the sound period, and he gave notable performances in many Hollywood films as well as in such European pictures as La Grande Illusion (1937) and Les Disparus de Saint-Agil (1939).
DZIGA VERTOV (1896-1954). The name was A pseudonym of Denis Arkadyevich Kaufman, Soviet film-maker and film-theorist. Dziga Vertov was leader of the Kinoks (Kino-Eye) Group during the 1920’s. He directed many of the Group’s early experimental documentaries and newsreels, including: Kino Pravda (1922), Kino Eye (1924), The Sixth Part of the World (1926), and Man with a Movie Camera. His most celebrated sound film was Three Songs about Lenin (1934).
ORSON WELLES (1915- ), American director; one-time “enfant terrible” of American theatre and motion pictures. His main films are: Citizen Kane (1940), The Magnificent Ambersons (1942), The Lady from Shanghai (1947), Macbeth (1948), Othello (1952), Confidential Report (1955), Touch of Evil (1957), The Trial (1962), and Chimes at Midnight (1965). Welles has also played major roles in numerous films.
ANDRZEJ WAJDA (1926- ), Polish director. His best-known films are: A Generation (1954), Kanal (1956), Ashes and Diamonds (1958), and The Innocent Sorcerers (1960).