Just over a half century after the death of the great Genevese linguist, Ferdinand de Saussure, we still lack a definitive study of his work and of the influence he exercised on the field of general linguistics. Specialized studies have been undertaken since his death, however, in particular by his former students in Geneva.
As its title implies, this study is in no way an attempt to offer the reader a critical evaluation of what has been called the Saussurian School of Geneva. Instead I have aimed at providing a frame of reference for the school. I have tried to make available to both professors and students of linguistics a succinct biography and bibliography of the leading figures of the Geneva School. The authors are presented in chronological order according to their dates of birth. The extracts of those linguists no longer alive (de Saussure, Bally, Sechehaye, and Karcevski) have been selected by Professors Frei and Godel; the others have been chosen by their own authors. I have referred only sparingly to the existing bibliographical studies of the School. In this regard the reader may consult R. Godel’s Les sources manuscrites du Cours de linguistique générale de F. de Saussure1 and the bibliography compiled by Rudolf Engler in his studies Théorie et critique d’un principe saussurien: l’arbitraire du signe2 and Compléments à l’arbitraire.3
The linguistic testament of F. de Saussure first appeared in 1916 with the publication of the Cours de linguistique génerale, thanks to the joint efforts of his disciples Charles Bally and Albert Sechehaye. The work of the Genevese scholar, in view of its originality and its innovations in the linguistic field, was not easy to understand. It was chiefly after 1937 that de Saussure’s doctrines came under fire, bringing about a valuable contribution to their clarification. In 1937 and 1939, the physician and linguist E. Pichon4 and the comparativist E. Benveniste5both launched attacks against the principle of the arbitrary nature of the sign.6 The reply was not long in forthcoming. In 1940 Bally answered them with an article on L’arbitraire du signe 7 in which he elucidated and developed de Saussure’s ideas in regard to a knotty problem: the difference between the concepts of value and meaning, which must respectively be attributed to “language” and to “acts of speaking.”8 Sechehaye in turn took his stand on the matter in 1940.9 In 1942 a new offensive was launched by Eric Buyssens in a study10 in which he criticized the triple dichotomy established by de Saussure between the domains of “language” and “speech,” between synchronic and diachronie linguistics, and between the study of internal and external elements of language. Buyssens considered the theoretical basis of such a dichotomy false and felt that the system depending on it, although internally coherent, was erroneous in its whole. These assertions brought forth a reasoned reply from Sechehaye,11 aiming at a clarification of the problem.
But in other parts of Europe the Cours de linguistique générale found a readier assent. Its influence is obvious in the work of such linguists of the Prague School as N. Trubetzkoy and S. Karcevski; and the leader of the “glossematist” school of Copenhagen, L. Hjelmslev, constantly acknowledged his dependence on the Saussurian principles.
In the United States, de Saussure’s ideas, though less widely diffused than in Europe, were perhaps better understood: it will suffice to mention, in this respect, L. Bloomfield’s review of the CLG, 2nd edition,12 and Rulon Wells’ thoroughgoing and keen study, De Saussure’s System of Linguistics.13
Praiseworthy contributions to the exegesis of de Saussure’s theories were made in the work of Charles Bally, who as early as 1913 had published a study entitled Ferdinand de Saussure et l’état actuel des études linguistiques.14 In 1916, with Sechehaye, he published the CLG, and in 1922, in collaboration with Leopold Gautier, Recueil des publications scientifiques de F. de Saus sure.15
Albert Sechehaye, aside from collaborating with Bally in the publication of the Cours, published the article Les problêmes de la langue ála lumière d’une théorie nouvelle (a re- view of the Cours) in 1917,16 L’école genevoise de linguistique générale in 1927,17 and Les trois linguistiques saussuriennes in 1940,18 undertaking in this last study an examination of de Saussure’s most essential doctrine as contained in the Cours.19
Henri Frei, the present professor of general linguistics at the University of Geneva, examined de Saussure’s theories in his article La linguistique saussurienne à Geneve depuis 193920 In 1950, in reply to E. Buyssens’Mise au point de quelques notions fondamentales de la phonologie,21 which presented a further criticism of de Saussure’s doctrines, Frei brought out an- other study entitled Saussure contre Saussure?22
The year 1957 saw the publication of Les sources manuscrites du Cours de linguistique générale de F. de Saussure,23 the doctoral thesis of Robert Godel, also a professor at the University of Geneva. Later Godel wrote Nouveaux documents saussuriens: les cahiers E. Constantin,24 and more recently L’école saussurienne de Genève 25 He has also published Notes inédites de F. de Saussure26 and 2e cours de linguistique généraie (1908-1909): Introduction,27 all of which works have con- tributed notably to the study of the great Genevese linguist.28
II. Ferdinand de Saussure and his work29
On October 27,1876, were held the inaugural ceremonies of the University of Geneva, which had taken the place of the "~c a d 6mi e "fo unded in 1559 by Calvin. In the program of the Faculty of Letters, as prescribed by Article 125 of the Loi sur 1 'Znstruction Publique of October 19, 1872, we find the discipline of linguistique, which had been absent from the curriculum of the ~ c a d 6mi eun til that date. Joseph Wertheimer, born in Soultz (Haut-Rhin) in 1833, and appointed Professor in 1874, gave courses in Linguistics as well as in Comparative Philology from 1873 on.30
Ferdinand-Mongin de Saussure (1857-1913), who gave the science of language an impulse unparalleled by that of any other linguist of his epoch, was gifted with a genius as meticulous as it was humble. Concerning his life there is little to be said. Born in Geneva on November 26, 1857, he took his Doctorate in Philosophy in 1880 at the University of Leipzig, where he made the acquaintance of the Neogrammarians. After having taught for ten years in Paris,31 where he gave French linguistic studies “une impulsion nouvelle et extrêmement féconde,” in Sechehaye’s words, and where he produced such eminent disciples as Grammont, Meillet, Boyer, and Gauthiot, we find him in Geneva as “professeur extraordinaire d,histoire et comparaison des langues indo-européennes” in October of 1891, “professeur ordinaire de sanscrit et des langues indo-européennes” in October of 1896, and professor of general linguistics in February 1907.
De Saussure’s revolutionary doctrines were collected in the Cours de linguistique générale. Completely original, they were never published by de Saussure himself. As A. Sechehaye has observed,
On sait que, d’une manière générale, à force d’être difficile avec lui-même et préoccupé d’aboutir à de grandes vues synthétiques, il n’écrivait presque plus depuis qu’il avait donné le Mémoire et sa thèse de doctorat sur Le génitif absolu en sanscrit . A peine a-t-il, dans quelques articles égrenés, fait connaître quelque chose des vues originales dont il nourrissait son enseignement oral.32
But the publication by Ch. Bally and A. Sechehaye of the CLG, a work based on notes taken by students, not only gave the study of linguistics a renovating stimulus of transcendental pro- portions, but also gave the Geneva scholar the renown he so richly deserved. To quote Sechehaye, the CLG “peut passer à bon droit pour une des contributions les plus originales et les plus fortes qui ait jamais été apportée à la solution du problème linguistique. “33
De Saussure, spanning two epochs, was like Bloomfield influenced by the linguistic school that immediately preceded him: the Junggrammatiker . It is obvious that the influence of the Neogrammarians on linguistics was far from negligible. Thanks to them, the oversimplified and rudimentary theory of Schleicher, positing that languages, like plants and animals, are natural living organisms, was permanently discredited; languages began to be considered as collective products of speech communities. For the Neogrammarians, language reflected both the human spirit and society. They therefore undertook to develop on the one hand a psychological, and on the other hand a sociological, study of language. The Neogrammarians, in fact-֊ and notably Hermann Paul — emphasized psychological motivations of linguistic phenomena. In this regard we may mention the work of the psychologist W. Wundt, Völkerpsychologie (Leipzig, 1900), and of Delbrück, who was inspired by Wundt’s example. Sociological linguistics was first propounded by Whitney (1827-1894), the specialist on American Indians and the author, among other studies, of a work published in 1875: The Life and Growth of Language. De Saussure was strongly influ- enced by the American scholar, and his followers have contin- ued to devote their attention to the social aspects of language. In this field, mention should be made of Antoine Meillet (1866- 1936), who devoted an appreciable amount of space to sociological considerations in his Linguistique historique et linguistique générale.
From de Saussure’s viewpoint, the main drawback of psychological linguistics was that it failed to consider language as a self-contained object. In point of fact, language had not been treated as an independent field of study before de Saussure. In a note dating from 1908, he commented:
La seule idée suffisante serait de poser le fait grammatical en lui-même et dans ce qui le distingue de tout autre acte psychologique, ou en outre logique. Plus l’auteur prend de peine à abattre ce qui lui semble une barrière illégitime entre la forme pensée et la pensée, plus il semble s’éloigner de son propre but, qui serait de fixer le champ de l’expression et d’en concevoir les lois, non dans ce qu’elles ont de commun avec notre psychisme en général, mais dans ce qu’elles ont au contraire de spécifique et d’absolument unique dans le phénomène de la langue.34
As to the sociology of language, de Saussure was closer in spirit to the Neogrammarians. He felt that language could be examined only within a social context. It should nonetheless be noted that a certain degree of contradiction is to be found in de Saussure’s work: in a number of texts he states that social attributes are external rather than internal factors in language. For many contemporary linguists — the Structuralists — a Ianguage can be visualized independently of the society which uses it. Such is, for example, the case with Indo-European and Germanic.35
Since 1916 F. de Saussure’s name has achieved world renown within the field of linguistics as a result of the Cours de linguistique générale. Before that he was known as the author of the Mémoire sur le système primitif des voyelles dans les langues ind-européennes.36 He also published additional studies, consisting almost entirely of articles on philology. All of these papers are gathered in the Recueil des publications seien- tifiques, pages 399 to 599.
De Saussure’s earliest published articles date from 1877. They appeared in the Mémoires de la Société de linguistique de Paris, of which he had become a member on May 13, 1876.37 In 1878, at the age of twenty-one, he wrote his first work, the Mémoire mentioned above, which deservedly made him famous as a linguist; and in 1881 he followed it up with De Vemploi du génitif absolu en sanscrit,38 his doctoral thesis presented at Leipzig the year before. The article Comparatifs et superlatifs germaniques du type “inferus, infimus”39 and the short article י A Aγαμέμνωυ40 also date from 1881. On December 3, 1881, he read a paper on La phonétique du patois fribourgeois de la Suisse romande before the Linguistic Society of Paris. A short summary of the lecture appeared in the Bulletin.41
His later published works are rarer and generally of shorter length. From 1884: Védique “libug’a,” paléoslave “lobuzati”; “Sūdo”; Vieux haut allemand “murg,” “murgi”;42 and a more extensive study: Une loi rythmique de la langue grecque.43Further publications include’Aδηυ; Variétés (“Lüdus”; Grec αλκυών, allemand “Schwalbe”; Nυσταζω; Aύθρoν ; ‘Iµβηριs); Kpήυη; Boυκόλos; Sanscrit “stōkâs”; Sur un point de la phonétique des consonnes en indo-européen; Un ancien comparatif de σωφρων, et Gotique “wilwan.”44
In 1892 he published: Les formes du nom de nombre “six” en indo-européen; φpvkτόs; Λιγύs; Vieux prussien siran “le coeur”; Traitement de l’Ū en vieux prussien; Les féminins en -ū du vieux prussien; Gotique ρarf, ρaûrban “avoir besoin”; Άκέων; Tετίημαι; ‘Eπιτησεs; περί = υπει; ’Hυία; ‘oκρυóειs; ‘γγιηs; χ, ψ ρour “ks,” “ps”; Attique -ρη- pour -pα- ; -υμνo- pour –oμνo- ?; Lituanien kυmsté “le poing.”45
From 1896 and 1898 respectively date: Accentuation lituanienne48 and Inscriptions phrygiennes49 And from 1905: D’ωμήλνσιs à Tpιπτoλεμos, remarques étymologiques.50 Between 1909 and 1912 he published Sur les composés latins du type “agricola,”51 the article Alamans in the Dictionnaire historique, géographique et statistique du Canton de Vaud,52 and Adjectifs indo-européens du type “caecus” “aveugle.”53
Among the posthumous publications of F. de Saussure, one should first mention the Cours de linguistique générale, published for the first time in 1916,54 of which the following translations have been made: into Japanese by H. Kobayashi;55 German, by Herrn. Lommel;56 Russian, by A. M. Suxotin, revised and annotated by R. J. Sor, with a foreword by D. S. Vvedienski;57 Spanish, by Amado Alonso,58 with a preface and notes by the translator; English, by Wade Baskin;59 Polish, by Krystina Kasprzyk.60 We should also mention the critical edition of the CLG which is being prepared by Rudolf Engler, and the fact that an Italian translation,with an introduction and commentary, by Tullio De Mauro was published in 1967.61 And finally mention should be made of Le nom de la ville d’Oron á l’époque romaine,62 and of Notes inédites de F. de Saussure.63
III. De Saussureי s Genevese disciples
The expression “école genevoise,” according to A. Sechehaye, was first used in 1908 at a gathering organized in de Saussure’s honor by his friends and students.64 There can be no doubt that this linguistic movement has enjoyed a richly creative life and exercised over the years a dynamic influence on the science of language, nor that its foremost representatives have been disciples of de Saussure: Ch. Bally and A. Sechehaye. Today the trend is represented by the highly original contributions of H. Frei, and by his colleagues A. Burger and R. Godel.
Among de Saussure’s most intimate disciples, Charles Bally, successor to his master in the chair of general linguistics, first embarked on the path of scholarship through philological research, specifically, in Greek philology.65 His first published work was his doctoral thesis, De Euripidis tragoediarum partibus lyricis quaestiones .66 During the period in which he was principally concerned with philology, he published the following studies: Les langues classiques sont-elles des langues mortes?;67 in 1900, Ilαρυoψ and De quelques noms grecs de localités ;68 between 1903 and 1906: ‘Aκρασια: Etude de phonétique grecque;69 Contribution à la théorie du z voyelle;70 Alternance λ/p, and Traitement de -σμ- en grec;71 and finally Les diphtongues longues de l’Attique 72
In 1908 Bally published Accent grec, accent védique, accent indo-européen73 a unique work, which in spite of the author’s scholarly duties as professor of general linguistics and Indo- European studies from 1913 onward, was followed by an equally informative study on the subject: L’expression des idées de sphère personnelle et de solidarité dans les langues indo- européennes74
In the Précis de stylistique75 published in 1905, we already note the influence of Bally’s master — to quote Sechehaye, “le goût et même la passion des problêmes généraux abordés avec une méthode sûre, sans hardiesse inconsidérée, mais sans timidite.”76 The Traité de stylistique française77 followed within this field of research and many specialized articles as well: La stylistique française de 1905 à 1909;78 L’étude systématique des moyens d’expression79 La stylistique et l’enseignement secondaire;80 Stylistique et linguistique générale;81 Stylistique générale et stylistique française, 1909-1913;82 Le style indirect libre en français moderne;83 Figures de pensée et formes linguistiques;84 L’enseignement de la langue maternelle et la formation de l’esprit.85
In addition to Bally’s importance for the language student who is primarily interested in philological and stylistic studies, his exhaustive research in the field of general linguistics is also especially outstanding. Having made the acquaintance of de Saussure at the age of thirty, Bally had been initiated in linguistic studies by one of the foremost linguists in the world, for whom he never failed to profess the most profound admiration. De Saussure’s approach and methods marked Bally’s life’s work, and were the inspiration for his personal investigations.86
If de Saussure had distinguished between “diachronie” and “synchronic” linguistic phenomena — which are mutually complementary — Bally was to favor consistently the second of the two ways of visualizing language:
‘Bally fut résolument synchroniste et staticien,י remarks J. Vendryes, ‘et en cela se montre révolutionnaire. Peut-être même sa réaction contre l’histoire fut-elle excessive. Sans doute il ne contestait pas la légitimité de la linguistique historique, dont la merveilleuse réussite éclatait d’ailleurs à tous les yeux. Mais il concevait et il prétendait instituer une linguistique statique dont toute considération historique fût bannie. ‘87
Bally’s static linguistics, from which all reference to a historical point of view is excluded,88 is at once psychological and sociological. It is psychological because the living language with which Bally was occupied, in reaction against the comparativist school, can only exist in the minds of its speakers: “La linguistique statique,” to quote Vendryes once more, “est done essentiellement psychologique, car rien n’est dit qui n’ait été pensé.”89 On the other hand, it is sociological: language is a social institution, a product of social activity. “Language “ — in opposition to “speech,” which is of necessity personal and which expresses individual habits of molding language — exists apart from the speaker, even if it is but the sum total of all pre-existing “speech.”
Language was examined from the affective viewpoint in Bally’s celebrated book Le langage et la vie ,90 published in 1913, which soon became the subject of serious criticism: “On lui reprocha surtout, en affirmant la primauté de l’affectif, d’ouvrir en linguistique la porte au vague et au flou.”91 None- theless Bally’s ideas have today passed into the public domain.
After the appearance of Le langage et la vie Bally embarked on an intensely creative phase, the fruit of which was primarily in the field of linguistics. In 1920 he brought out Impressionisme et grammaire.92 The following years saw the publication of Langage naturel et langage artificiel,93 Copule zéro et faits connexes,94 La pensée et la langue,95 Langue et parole,96 Le rythme linguistique et sa signification sociale,97 La contrainte sociale dans le langage,98 Note sur la langue parlée,99 Sur les méthodes d’exposé de la grammaire,100 Antiphrase et style indirect libre,101 and Spécimens de concordance entre la structure grammaticale et le système phonologique102 this last work undertaken with the collaboration of Sechehaye.
As the synthesis of his thought as it had been expressed in numerous articles throughout his career, Bally published in 1932 the celebrated Linguistique générale et linguistique française .103 This work, writes R. Godel, “affronte le problème, difficile entre tous, des rapports qui existent entre le langage et la pensée, entre les procédés et les catégories de la grammaire et celles de la logique.”104 J. Vendryes speculated almost twenty years ago how much of the work would retain its value for future linguistic studies. In answer he remarked:
Qu’elles [les idées linguistiques de Bally] soient un jour dépassées, c’est souhaitable, à moins de désespérer de la science; et on peut être convaincu qu’il l’aurait souhaité luimême. Mais l’oeuvre qu’il a bâtie est vaste et solide; telle qu’elle est actuellement, elle restera longtemps encore riche d’enseignements utiles et variés; car elle donne sans cesse à penser. Les jeunes linguistes y trouveront une masse abondante d’idées fécondes, de raisonnements rigoureux, de critiques pénétrantes, et ils y goûteront cette forme élégante et précise, qui est une joie pour l’esprit.105
Finally we should mention Bally’s later work, including the following studies: Les notions grammaticales d’absolu et de relatif;106 En été: au printemps. Croire en Dieu: croire au diable;107 Synchronie et diachronie;108 Qu’estce qu’un signe?;109 L’arbitraire du signe;110 Sur la motivation des signes Unguistiques;111 Intonation et syntaxe,112 Syntaxe de la modalité explicite;113 Latin “tempora,” grec τέμπη, ταπειυos ;114 and, two years before his death, Manuel d’accentuation grecque.115
No less outstanding was the career of Charles-Albert Seche-haye.116 He collaborated with Bally in the publication of the Cours de linguistique générale; his first published work was his doctoral thesis submitted at the University of Göttingen: Der Konjunktiv Imperfekti und seine Konkurrenten in den normalen hypothetischen Satzgefügen im Französischen. Einleitung und dritter Teil. Inaugural -Dissertation.117 In this early work, de Saussure’s disciple already showed the direction in which his studies would be oriented — by delving into the study of his mother tongue to gain insight into the general problems of linguistics. Sechehaye shortly pushed further into the heart of these problems, and the synthesis of his meditations on the subject, the Programme et méthodes de la linguistique théorique. Psychologie du langage ,118 appeared in 1908.
Later publications included La stylistique et la linguistique théorique;119 Les règles de la grammaire et la vie du langage;120 La méthode constructive en syntaxe;121 Les problèmes de la langue à la lumière d’une théorie nouvelle;122 Les deux types de la phrase;123 and Locutions et composés.124
In 1926 he published his best known work, the Essai sur la structure logique de la phrase ,125 which constituted a renovation of the theory of grammar by laying down certain principles which the author termed “la méthode constructive”:
Partant de la cellule linguistique qu’est la phrase simple, il montre comment, par des échanges fonctionnels et par des amplifications progressives, les formes les plus diverses de la syntaxe peuvent se ramener aux formes les plus simples.126
A series of articles on different linguistic topics followed the Essai. Among them are: Sur les méthodes d’exposé de la grammaire;127 Les mirages linguistiques;128 Sur les ressemblances et les différences que l’on peut constater entre le système des phonèmes et le système des signes;129 La pensée et la langue, ou comment concevoir le rapport organique de l’individuel et du social dans le langage?;130 Essai de classement des espèces de phrases et quelques observations sur les trois cas de l’hypothétique en latin;131 Evolution organique et évolution contingentielle;132 Les trois linguistiques saussuriennes;133 Les classes de mots et l’imagination;134 Pour l’arbitraire du signe;135 De la définition du phonème à la définition de l’entité de langue;136 Considérations sur la morphologie du français.137
Sechehaye also wrote Eléments de grammaire historique du français138 as well as a book dedicated to the teaching of French; Abrégé de grammaire française sur un plan constructif, suivi d’un tableau systématique des conjugaisons.139
Born in Tobolsk (Siberia), Serge Karcevski (1884-Geneva 1955) was forced at an early age to abandon his country for political reasons. Like so many of his compatriots before him, he found a place of refuge in the beautiful Swiss city. He entered the Faculty of Letters of the University of Geneva, where he received his “licence” in 1914, having studied under de Saussure, Bally and Sechehaye, whose collective influence oriented him to linguistic studies. He returned to Moscow in March of 1917 after the fall of the Tsarist regime; there he decided to devote his career to linguistics. He lectured on de Saussure’s theories at Moscow’s Academy of Sciences. After sojourns in Strasbourg, as Reader in Russian at the University, and in Prague, he returned to Geneva, where he received his doctorate on the strength of his thesis: Système du verbe russe. Essai de linguistique synchronique .140 He was then appointed Professor at the University of Geneva, where he remained until the end of his life.141
Karcevski straddled the linguistic schools of Geneva and Prague. His linguistic activity was mainly focused on Russian, which he submitted to the rigorous methods of de Saussure. In 1926, together with N. Trubetzkoy and R. Jakobson, he founded the Prague Linguistic Circle. His scientific reputation was established with the publication of the Système du verbe russe and continued to grow with his later publications. Among these studies, almost exclusively devoted to Russian, the following should be mentioned: Classification naturelle des verbes russes;142 Mécanisme des aspects des verbes russes;143 Du dualisme asymétrique du signe linguistique;144 Sur la phonologie de la phrase;145 De la structure du substantif russe;146 Autour d’un problème de morphologie;147 Sur la nature de l’adverbe;148 Phrase et proposition;149 Remarques sur la psychologie des aspects en russe;150 Introduction a l’étude de l’interjection;151 Sur la parataxe et la syntaxe en russe;152 Deux propositions dans une seule phrase;153 and L’idée du procès dans la langue russe.154 Karcevski had long been working on a Russian grammar and textbook, which he never deemed ready for publication. It was only after the author ‘s death that the manuscript was edited by his son, Igor Karcevski.155
André Burger (1896- ) was initiated into de Saussure’s theories of linguistics by Antoine Meillet, who had been a disciple of de Saussure in Paris. Burger’s name is linked principally with classical and Romance philology. His university studies were directed toward classical research: he earned a “licence” in classical literature at the University of Neuchâtel in 1918 and received diplomas in advanced classical studies at the Sorbonne (1920) and at the Ecole pratique des Hautes Etudes in Paris (1926). His doctoral thesis, Etudes de phonétique et de morphologie latines,156 was in the same field of research, and his professorial activity was to follow the same course: “privat-docent” of comparative classic grammar at the University of Neuchâtel in 1924; in 1931 Professor of French historical grammar in the same university, and in 1938 Professor of comparative Romance philology. From 1947 to 1966 he was Professor of Romance philology at the University of Geneva. His profes- sorial activity in the field of general linguistics only began in 1944, in which year the University of Neuchâtel appointed him Professor of this discipline.
Most of Burger’s publications are devoted to Romance philology and literature. Special mention should be made of his work on the “Roman commun.” As far as linguistics in general is concerned, Burger has tried to apply de Saussure’s ideas to the field of Romance philology, notably to French studies. This he did in articles such as Phonématique et diachronie á propos de la palatalisation des consonnes romanes,157 Significations et valeur du suffixe verbal français -ç-,158 and Essai d’analyse d’un système de valeurs.159
The other present-day representatives of the Saussurian School in Geneva are Professors H. Frei and R. Godel, and two disciples of the former, E. Sollberger (currently in London) and F. Kahn.
Henri Frei was born in Baar (Canton of Zoug) on June 5, 1899. He is presently Professor of general linguistics, comparative Indo-European grammar, and Sanskrit at the University of Geneva. After studies at the School of Oriental Languages in Paris, he took his doctorate at the University of Geneva in 1929. In 1932 he went to the Orient. In Peking he was first lecturer at the French University of China, and within a year was appointed Professor at the National University. In Tokyo in 1934 he served as Professor at the French Athenaeum. On August 6,1940, he was promoted from “privat-docent” at the University of Geneva to “professeur extraordinaire” of the history and comparative study of Indo-European languages and of Sanskrit. In 1945 he was entrusted with the chair of general linguistics and thus became, with the title of “professeur ordinaire,” de Saussure’s and Bally’s successor. He was a co- founder with Karcevski, Bally and Sechehaye of the Linguistic Society of Geneva and of the Cahiers F. de Saussure, the society’s journal.160 Since 1940 he has been the inspiration of that publication.
Frei, whose lectures on general linguistics I have been fortunate to attend for two years, and to whom I am bound by ties of friendship and admiration, was a student of Charles Bally, the faithful disciple of de Saussure. In his lectures as in his numerous publications, Professor Frei has managed to synthesize the teachings of de Saussure and the most recent trends in present-day linguistics. A few years after he began his lectures at the University of Geneva, he thus defined the plan of his own research:
La ligne de conduite qu’il a adoptée consiste à confronter l’héritage genevois avec le travail qui se fait ailleurs et avec les matériaux d’enquête rapportés d’Extrême-Orient.161
Frei’s first work was his doctoral thesis, La grammaire des fautes162 a title which hardly reflects the actual contents of the book. It constitutes in fact a substantial introduction to the functional study of language.
The following is a list of Frei’s work before taking up his professorship in Geneva: Préverbes et postpositions avant la flexion indo-européenne;163 Monosyllabisme et polysyllabisme dans les emprunts linguistiques (avec un inventaire des phonèmes de Pékin et de Tokio);164 “Sylvie est jolie des yeux.”165 Since his return to Geneva, Frei has published the following artides and books: Interrogatif et indéfini;166 Qu’est-ce qu’un dictionnaire de phrases?;167 Un système chinois des aspects;168 Ramification des signes dans la mémoire;169 “Ça fait distingué”;170 Lois de passage;171 De la linguistique comme science de lois;172 Note sur l’analyse des syntagmes;173 Systèmes de déictiques;174 Zéro, vide et intermittent;175 Langue, parole et différenciation;176 The Ergative Construction in Chinese;177 Le livre des deux mille phrases;178 Cas et dèses en français;179 Critères de délimitation;180A Note on Bloomfield’s Limiting Adjective;181 Caractérisation, indication, spécification;182 Critères de classement;183 Carrés sémantiques (A propos de véd. “utpà֊”);184 Véda et Cachemire;185 Tranches homophones (A propos de l’article partitif du français);186 Méthodes de recostruction sémantique (A propos de véd. anùpâ-);187 Désac- cords;188 Trois mots singuliers;189L’unité linguistique complexe;190Véd. kùlâm “berge,”191 and finally Le signe de Saussure et le signe de Buyssens.192
His clear, precise, and rigorously analytical style combines the most scientific aspects of the CLG with the most modern developments in the science of language. Until his Leçons de linguistique makes its appearance, Frei continues to synthesize and expound the long experience he has gained over the years. Such is the purpose of Modes de réduction des syntagmes;193 Syntaxe et méthodes en linguistique synchronique;194 Cinquante onomatopées japonaises ,195 and Quasi-phrases et phrases -poteaux ,196 as well as of his earlier works. The far- ranging vision of Frei is a vital link — and the most orthodox — in the chain of linguistic trends which the work of the Genevese master has produced. Because of the fidelity of his interpretation and the highly personal approach that he brings to this task of exposing the various aspects of de Saussure’s thought, Frei’s work itself will deservedly pass to posterity.
Robert Godel (1902- ), Professor of Latin language and literature at the University of Geneva, is, like Henri Frei, a former student of Bally. Since 1957, when his doctoral thesis on Les sources manuscrites du Cours de linguistique générale de F. de Saussure was published, Godel has devoted himself to collecting unpublished data concerning the work of the great Swiss linguist.197 The Sources manuscrites is a work marked with thoroughgoing and profound research; it represents the starting-point for textual criticism — so long awaited — of the documents relating to de Saussure’s thought and teaching. G. Derossi has remarked in this respect:
La pubblicazione del Godel ha rivelato molte richezze nascoste del pensiero saussuriano, e molte piu ne ha fatto intravedere, inaugurando una nuova fase negli studi saussuriani, che tendono da una parte al più scrupoloso accertamento filologico, e dall’altra ad un approfondimento dei temi essenziali piu articolato che per il passato, in modo da evitare le sterili contrapposizioni e gli inutili luoghi comuni in cui l’esegesi saussuriana si è talora irretita.198
Godel’s principal follower in this field has been Rudolf Engler, author of an important study on the much debated theory of the arbitrariness of the sign: Théorie et critique d’un principe saus sur ien: l’arbitraire du signe, to which has been appended an article entitled Compléments à l’arbitraire .199 Engler has prepared a critical edition of the CLG200 as well as a Terminologie saussurienne (for the CIPL).
Among R. Godel’s other linguistic studies are the following: Grammaire turque;201 Homonymie et identité;202 La question des signes zéro;203 Les semi-voyelles en latin;204 Remarques sur des systèmes de cas;205 Sur l’évolution des voyelles brèves la- tines;206 Les origines de la conjugaison arménienne;207 F. de Saussure’s Theory of Language;208 and De la théorie du signe aux termes du système 209
Edmond Sollberger, born in 1920 in Constantinople but a Swiss citizen by birth, was educated at French schools there and at the University of Geneva, where he took his degrees (license es lettres, 1945; doctorat es lettres, 1952). A curator and later acting director of the Musée d’art et d’histoire from 1949 to 1961 and “privat-docent” at the University of Geneva from 1956 to 1961, he is currently Assistant Keeper of Western Asiatic Antiquities in the British Museum, London. Sollberger is essentially an Assyriologist,210 but he studied general linguistics under Albert Sechehaye and Henri Frei, and acknowledges the latter as his master. Except for his short Note sur l’unité linguistique211 Sollberger’s books and articles deal with Sumerian and Babylonian philology and history. In his Etudes de Unguistique sumérienne212 however, and in his doctoral thesis on the Sumerian verb,213 he has endeavored to analyze Sumerian for the first time in the light of Saussurian linguistics.
Born in 1929 in Basle, in the Alemannic-speaking part of Switzerland, but with French as his mother tongue, Félix Kahn joined the Geneva school of linguistics in 1951, following his award of the “licence ês lettres” and the Diploma of Phonetics in Paris. His thesis, Le système des temps de l’indicatif chez un Parisien et chez une Bâloise214 described the results of his attempt to apply the principles of de Saussure’s linguistics and of Trubetzkoy’s phonology, as well as Frei’s method of investigating languages with the help of sentence dictionaries, to the analysis of the system of tenses of two idiolects. Some years later Kahn gave a contrastive description of German phonetics and grammar for the teaching of this language in French-speaking schools.215 He is currently engaged in a joint research project on the systematic study of French intonation.
I have tried to present in the preceding pages a complete bibliography of the so-called Saussurian School in Geneva. The works published by the school offer an extensive field for the linguist’s attention, especially in regard to the history of linguistics. They await the critic capable of estimating with precision the true contribution of F. de Saussure and his disciples to the science of language.
I am not so ambitious as to have set myself such a task, which would have exceeded the limits and objectives of the present study. As I stated at the beginning, my goal has been restricted to offering an inventory of the publications of the Geneva School to a wider scholarly public. If in so doing I have rendered a small service to both teachers and students of linguistics, I shall consider my labor well rewarded.
University of Geneva
1Genève, Droz, 1957, pp. 18-21.
2CFS 19 (1962), pp. 565-. (Abbreviations are listed at the bottom of p. 1.)
3CFS 21 (1964), pp. 25-32. A bibliography of Bally’s publications (up to 1939) is to be found in Mélanges de linguistique offerts à Charles Bally, Genève, 1939, pp. x-xii; of Sechehaye’s, in CFS 4 (1944), pp. 3-5; of Karcevski’s, in CFS 14 (1956), pp. 14-16.
4La linguistique en France. Problèmes et méthodes, in JPs, 1957, pp. 25-48.
5Nature du signe linguistique, in Acta Linguistica (Copenhagen) I (1939), p. 23-29.
6Both linguists denied the principle of the arbitrariness of the sign, claiming (a) that de Saussure introduced two contradictory terms in his definition of the sign, and (b) that the relationship between signified and signifier, far from being arbitrary, is in fact of an organically necessary nature.
7L’arbitraire du signe. Valeur et signification, in Le Français Moderne (Paris) 3 (1940), pp. 193-206.
8Henri Frei, in Acta Linguistica 5 (1945-1949), p. 54.
9Pour l’arbitraire du signe (undertaken and written by Sechehaye with the endorsement of Ch. Bally and H. Frei), Acta Linguistica 2 (1940- 1941), pp. 165-169.
10Les six linguistiques de F. de Saussure, Langues Vivantes No. 7, Bruxelles, M. Didier, 19 pp. (Extract of La Revue des Langues vivantes 1 (1942) pp. 15-23; 2, pp. 46-55).
11CFS 4 (1944) pp. 65-69.
12Modern Language Journal 8 (1924) pp. 317-319.
13Word 3, Nos. 1-2 (1947), pp. 1-31.
14Genève, Atar, 1913, 29 pp. (Inaugural lecture of the Course on general linguistics, given at the University of Geneva on October 27, 1913). Reprinted in Le langage et la vie, 3d. ed. (1952).
15Genève, Sonor, 1922, 642 pp.
16Revue Philosophique 84, Paris, 1917, pp. 1-30.
17Indogerm. Forsch. 44 (1927) pp. 217-241.
18Vox Romanica (Zürich) 5 (1940) pp. 1-48.
19The following topics are dealt with in the article:
A.Le Cours de linguistique générale devant la critique.
B.Le problème des rapports de la diachronie et de la synchronie:
I.Le cadre logique des trois linguistiques saussuriennes;
II.La linguistique synchronique ou des états de langue;
III.La linguistique de la parole organisée ou du fonctionne- ment de la langue;
IV.Digression au sujet des rapports de la linguistique dia- chronique avec les deux disciplines précédentes;
V.La linguistique diachronique ou des évolutions de la langue.
20Acta Linguistica 5 (1945-1949), pp. 54-56, and Word 3 (1947), pp. 107-109.
21CFS 8 (1949), pp. 37-60.
22CFS 9 (1950), pp. 7-28.
23Geneva, Droz, 1957, 282 pp.
24CFS 16 (1958-1959), pp. 23-32.
25Trends in European and American Linguistics (1930-1960), Spectrum publ., 1961, pp. 294-299.
26CFS 12 (1954), pp. 49-71.
27CFS 15 (1957), pp. 3-103.
28See, in particular, G. Derossi’s book: Segno e struttura linguistici nel pensiero di F. de Saussure. Università degli studi di Trieste, Del Bianco edit., Udine, 1965, 359 pp. On de Saussure’s significance for present-day linguistic research: E. Benveniste, Saussure après un demi-siècle, CFS 20 (1963), pp. 7-21.
29For further information concerning the life and work of de Saussure, see the obituaries by A. Meillet (BSLP 18, No. 61, 1913, pp. clxi-clxxv, reprinted in Linguistique historique et linguistique générale II, Paris, 1936, pp. 174-184) and by W. Streitberg (Indogerm. Jahrbuch II, 1915, pp. 203-213). We should also mention the Inventaire des manuscrits de F. de Saussure (CFS 17, 1960, pp. 5-11) and Souvenirs de F. de Saussure concernant sa jeunesse et ses études (ibid., pp. 12-25), published by R. Godel;Lettres de F. de Saussure à Antoine Meillet [1894- 1911] (CFS 21, 1964, pp. 91-125), published by E. Benveniste.
30Prior to Wertheimer’s appointment, a course had been given since 1869 by Kraus, Professor of Modern Languages and Literature, first under the title of Philologie and later of Linguistique comparée. Adolphe Pictet (1799-1875) had also taught in Geneva and, in spite of his duties as Professor of Esthetics and Modern Literature, had participated through his books and articles in the contemporary development of San- skrit studies. Especially noteworthy in this respect is his book — awarded the Prix Volney in 1836 by the Institut de France —De Vaffinité des langues celtiques avec le sanscrit (Paris, 1837). He is also the au- thor of the celebrated study Les origines Indoeuropéennes ou les Aryas primitifs. Essai de paléontologie linguistique (Paris, 1859-1863, 2 vol.; 2nd. ed., revised and expanded: Paris, 1877). F. de Saussure, who had as a boy been personally acquainted with Pictet (CFS 17, pp. 16-17), was to be particularly influenced by this last work (see Recueil des publica- Hons scientifiques. .. , pp. 391-402; CLG, Part 5, Ch. IV, § 3).
31De Saussure was “maître de conférences de gotique et vieux haut allemand” at the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes. He was elected a member of the Linguistic Society of Paris on May 13, 1876, Assistant Secretary in 1882, and finally permanent Assistant Secretary in 1883. See E. Benveniste, F. de Saussure à I י Ecole des Hautes Etudes (in Annuaire de l’Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, IVe Section, Paris, 1964- 1965, pp. 21-34); M. Fleury, Notes et documents sur F. de Saussure (1880-1891) (ibid., pp. 35-67).
32Indogerm. Forsch. 44 (1927), p. 218.
33Ibid., p. 219.
34Quoted by R. Godel, Les sources manuscrites... ,p. 52.
35Regarding de Saussure’s opinions on the sociological aspect of language, see J. Vendryes, Le caractère social du langage et la doctrine de F. de Saussure, in JPs, 1921, pp. 618-624, and W. Doroszewski, Quelques remarques sur les rapports de la sociologie et de la linguistique: Dürkheim et F. de Saussure, in JPs, 1933, pp. 82-91.
36Leipzig, Teubner, 1879, 302 pp. Republished in Recueil des publications scientifiques, pp. 1-268.
37The titles are as follows: Le suffixe -t- (MSLP 3, 1877, pp. 197- 209). Remarques de grammaire et phonétique: I. Sur une classe de verbes latins en -eo. II. La transformation de tt en ss suppose-t-elle un intermédiaire st ? m. Exceptions au rhotacisme. IV. I, U = ES, OS (Ibid., pp. 279-301). Essai d’une distinction des différents A indo-européens (ibid. pp. 359-370). Reproduced in Recueil. . ., pp. 339-390.
38Genève, 1881, 95 pp. (Recueil..., pp. 269-338).
39Mélanges Renier, Bibl. de l’Ecole des Hautes Etudes, fasc. 73, pp. 383 ff. (Recueil..., pp. 481-489).
40MSLP 4 (1881), p. 432 (Recueil..., p. 403).
41BSLP 5 (1881-1884), p. Iii. Between 1885 and 1891, de Saussure read the following papers to this Society: Grec otKewv; Inscription grecque archaïque de Gortyne; Grec répiro^wa, allemand “dürfen”; Grec npiiru, latin “corpus”; Grec cppvKTOs; Vieil allemand “holz,” latin “callis”; Gérondif latin et “secundus, oriundus, labundus”; S- initiale en latin (BSLP 6, 1885-1888); Importance des fins de mot dans la versification homérique; Grec iroXXÓs; L’accent lituanien; Allemand “Weichsel”; Sans- crit th (BSLP 7, 1888-1892). (Recueil..., pp. 600-604).
42MSLP 5 (1884), pp. 232, 413, 449-450 (Recueil... ,pp. 403-407).
43Mélanges Charles Graux, Paris, 1884, pp. 737-748 ( Recueil..., pp. 464-476).
44MSLP 6 (1889), pp. 53, 119, 161, 162, 246-257, 323, 358 ( Recueil... ,..,pp. 408-434).
45MSLP 7 (1892), pp. 73-77, 79-93 (Recueil. .., pp. 435-463).
46MSLP 8 (1894), pp. 425-446 (Recueil... ,pp. 490-512).
47Indogerm. Forsch. 4 (1894), pp. 456-470 (Recueil ..., pp. 513-525).
48Anzeiger für Idg. Sprach- und Altertumskunde. Beiblatt zu den Idg. Forsch. 6 (1896), pp. 157-166 (fiecueil. .., pp. 526-538).
49Recherches archéologiques dans l’Asie Occidentale. Mission en Cappadoce (1893-1894), par Ernest Chantre. Paris, E. Leroux, 1898, pp. 165-191 (Recueil.. ., pp. 542-575).
50Mélanges Jules Nicole, Genève, W. Kündig, 1905, pp. 503-514 (Recueil..., pp. 576-584).
51Mélanges offerts à Louis Havet. Paris, Hachette, 1909, pp. 459- 471 (Recueil. .., pp. 585-594).
52Published by E. Mottaz. Lausanne, 1911, vol. I, pp. 54-56.
53Festschrift Wilhelm Thomsen. Leipzig, Harassowitz, 1912, pp. 202-206 (Recueil..., pp. 595-599).
54Subsequent editions: 1922, 1931, 1949, 1962; critical edition edited by Rudolf Engler, Wiebaden, Harrassowitz, 1967-1968 (vols. 15 ;4-th vol- ume forthcoming).
55Gengogaku-genron. Tokyo, 1928 (with subsequent editions).
56Grundfragen der Sprachwissenschaft. Berlin, 1931.
57Kurs obSöey lingvistiki. Moskow, Socekgiz, 1933.
58Curso de linguistica general. Buenos Aires, 1945; 2nd edition: 1955.
59Course in General Linguistics. New York, 1959; London, 1960.
60Kurs jezykoznawstwa ogolnego. Warszaw, 1961.
61Bari, Casa editrice Laterza, 1st ed. 1967; 2nd ed. 1968.
62Posthumous study edited and annotated by L. Gauchat, in L’indi- cateur d’histoire suisse, year 51, Berne, 1920, pp. 286-298.
63Edited by R. Godel. CFS 12 (1954), pp. 49-71. See also CFS 15 (1957), pp. 3-103.
64Indogerm. Forsch. 44 (1927), p. 219.
65Charles Bally was born in Geneva on February 4, 1865. After studies at the universities of Geneva and Berlin, he took his doctorate in Berlin (1889). He spent the years 1889-1891 in Greece. In 1893, he was appointed “privat-docent” of French stylistics at the University of Geneva. He was temporary Professor of Sanskrit during de Saussure’s absence in the academic year 1906-1907, and Professor of General Linguistics and Indo-European Studies from 1913 to 1939, in which year he became Professeur honoraire. He died on April 10, 1947. Concerning Bally’s life and work, the following studies may be consulted: A. Sechehaye, L’Ecole genevoise de linguistique générale, Idg. Forsch. 44 (1927), pp. 225-233; J. Vendryes, L’oeuvre linguistique de Charles Bally, CFS 6 (1946-1947), pp. 48-62; H. Frei, Charles Bally, Lingua 1 (1947), pp. 130-132.
67Geneva, Georg, 1899.
68Papers read to the Linguistic Society of Paris (Summary in BSLP 11, 1898-1901, p. cxxxii).
69MSLP 12 (1903), pp. 60-66.
70Ibid., pp. 314-330.
71Papers read to the Linguistic Society of Paris (Summary in BSLP 13, 1903-1905, pp. iii and xiii, respectively).
72MSLP 13 (1905-1906), pp. 1-25.
73Mélanges de linguistique offerts à F. de Saussure. Paris, Cham- pion, 1908, pp. 3-29.
74Festschrift Louis Gauchat. Aarau, 1926, pp. 68-78.
75Genève, Eggimann, 1905.
76Indogerm. Forsch. 44 (1927), p. 218.
77Heidelberg and Paris, 1909, 2 vols, (with subsequent editions).
78Vollmöller’s Romanischer Jahresbericht 11, p. 189 ff.
79Genève, Eggimann, 1910, 18 pp. (Offprint from Neuere Sprachen 19, no. 1).
80Saint-Blaise (Neuchâtel), Foyer Solidariste, 1911, 24 pp.
81Archiv für das Studium der neueren Sprachen (Braunschweig) 128 (1912), pp. 87-126. Reprinted in Le langage et la vie, starting with the 1926 edition.
82Vollmöller’s Roman. Jahresber. 13, pp. 190-210.
83Germanisch-Romanische Monatsschrift 4 (1912), pp. 549-556, 597-606.
84Ibid., 6 (1914), pp. 405-422; 456-470.
85Le Producteur, Paris, 1921, pp. 354-367. Reprinted in Le langage et la vie, starting with the 1926 edition.
86Cf. J. Vendryes, L’oeuvre linguistique de Charles Bally, CFS 6 (1946-1947), p. 48.
87Ibid., p. 52.
88”En matière de linguistique statique, le point de vue du linguiste doit être celui du sujet parlant” (ibid., p. 53).
90Genève, Atar, 1913, 111 pp.; 2nd edition, totally revised and ex- panded: Paris, Payot, 1926, 236 pp.; 3rd expanded edition: Genève, Droz — Lille, Girard, 1952, 164 pp. Another edition exists: “Nouvelle edition revue et augmentée,” Zürich, Max Niehans, 1935, 227 pp.
91Vendryes, loc. cit., p. 57.
92Mélanges offerts a Bernard Bouvier, Genève, 1920, pp. 261-279; translated into Spanish, with footnotes, by A. Alonso and R. Lida, Buenos Aires, 1932.
93JPs, 1921, pp. 625-643. Reprinted in Le langage et la vie, starting with the 2nd edition, under a new title: Langage transmis et langage acquis.
94BSLP 23, (1922) pp. 1-6.
95Ibid., pp. 117-137.
96JPs, 1926, pp. 293-301.
97Premier Congrès du Rythme, Geneva, 1926, pp. 253-263.
98Revue internationale de sociologie. Paris, M. Giard, 1927, pp. 209-229.
99Die neueren Sprachen (Marburg) 35 (1927), pp. 122-126.
100In collaboration with Sechehaye. Actes du 1er Congres interna- tional de linguistes (The Hague, 10-15 April 1928), Leiden, pp. 36-53.
101 A Grammatical Miscellany offered to Otto Jespersen,CCopenhagen, 1930, pp. 331-340.
102’Actes du 2e Congrès international de linguistes (Geneva, 25-29 August 1931), Paris, Adrien Maisonneuve, 1933, pp. 116-118.
103Paris, E. Leroux, 1932; 2nd edition: Berne, A. Francke ; 3rd edition: Berne, A. Francke ; 4th edition: Berne, 1965. Italian translation: Linguistica generale e linguistica francese. Introduzione e appendice di Cesare Segre. Traduzione di Giovanni Caravaggi, [Milano], II Saggiatore, 1963.
104CFS 6 (1946-1947), p. 70.
105Loc. cit., p. 62.
106JPs, 1933, pp. 341-354.
107Festschrift für Ernst Tappolet, Basel, 1935, pp. 9-15.
108Vox Romanica 2 (1937), pp. 53-60.
109JPs, 1939, pp. 161-174.
110Le Français Moderne, Paris, July 1940, pp. 3-16.
111BSLP 41 (1940), pp. 75-88.
112CFS 1 (1941), pp. 33-42.
113CFS 2 (1942), pp. 3-13.
114Ibid., pp. 58-59.
115Berne, A. Franke, 1945, 129 pp.
116Born in Geneva on July 4, 1870, he took his doctorate in Philosophy at Gottingen in 1902. He was appointed “privat-docent״ at the University of Geneva in the same year. From 1912 to 1913 he was de Saussure’s substitute for the course in general linguistics, and in 1922 and 1930-1931 he substituted for Bally. In 1929 he was appointed ״Professeur extraordinaire״ of grammatical theory, and from 1936 on he took over the chair of Old French. ״Professeur extraordinaire״ of general linguistics in 1939, he moved into Bally’s chair in the same year, a position which he was to abandon definitively in 1945. He died on July 2, 1946.
117Göttingen, 1902, 67 pp. A French version of this study, Lfimpar-fait du subjonctif et ses concurrents dans les hypothétiques normales en français. Esquisse de syntaxe historique, was published later in Romanische Forschungen XIX, no. 2 (1905), pp. 321-406.
118Paris, Leipzig, Geneva, 1908, vol. XIX, 267 pp.
119՝Mélanges ... F. de Saussure, Paris, Champion, 1908, pp. 155-187. Japanese translation by H. Kobayashi, Tokyo, Sanscido Bookshop, 1935.
120Germanisch-Romanische Monatsschrift 6 (1914), pp. 288-303, 341-351.
121Revue des langues Romanes, Montpellier, vol. LEX (January-April 1916), pp. 44-76.
122Revue philosophique, Paris, F. Alcan, year 42 (July 1917), pp. 1-30.
123Mélanges offerts à Bernard Bouvier, Geneva, 1920, pp. 215-232. Reprinted in CFS 4 (1944), pp. 7-22.
124JPs, 1921, pp. 654-675.
125Collection linguistique publiée par la Société de linguistique de Paris, vol. XX, Paris, Champion, 1926, 237 pp.
126Bally’s words, in CFS 6 (1946-1947), p. 66.
127With the collaboration of Bally. Actes du 1er Congrès international de linguistes, pp. 36-53.
128JPs, 1930, pp. 337-366.
129Actes du 2e Congrès international de linguistes, Paris, 1933, pp.118-120.
130JPs, 1933, pp. 57-81. Reprinted in CFS 4, pp. 26-52.
131BSLP 35 (1935), pp. 58-75.
132Mélanges de linguistique offerts à Charles Bally, Geneva, Georg, 1939, pp. 19-29.
133Vox Romanica (Zürich) 5 (1940), pp. 1-48.
134CFS 1 (1941), pp. 77-88.
135Acta Linguistica 2 (1940-1941), pp. 165-169. Cf. note 9.
136CFS 2 (1942), pp. 45-55.
137CFS 4 (1944), pp. 53-64.
138Geneva, Eggimann, 1909.
139Zürich, 1926, 118 pp. The second part (Le verbe français. Ta- bleau systématique de ses conjugaisons) has also been edited separately.
141For biographical information, see CFS 14 (1956), pp. 5-13.
142Flavia (Prague) 1 (1922-1923), pp. 242-268.
143Ibid., pp. 497-523.
144TCLP 1 (1929), pp. 88-93. Reprinted in CFS 14 (1956), pp. 18-24, and collected in A Prague School Reader in Linguistics, Bloomington, London, Indiana Univ. Press, 1964, pp. 81-87.
145TCLP 4 (1931), pp. 188-234. Collected in A Prague School Reader ..., pp. 206-251.
146 Char is ter ia G. Mathe sio ... oblata. Prague, 1932, pp. 65-73.
147Annales Academiae Scientiarum Fennicae (Helsinki) 27 (1932), pp. 84-91.
148TCLP 6 (1936), pp. 107-111. Collected in A Prague School Reader ..., pp. 360-365.
149Mélanges J. van Ginneken. Paris, Klincksieck, 1937, pp. 59-66.
150Mélanges ... Charles Bally, Genève, 1939, pp. 231-248.
151CFS 1 (1941), pp. 57-75.
152CFS 7 (1948), pp. 33-38.
153Posthumous. In CFS 14 (1956), pp. 36-62. A summary was pub- lished in the Bulletin du Cercle linguistique de Copenhague 6 (1939- 1940), pp. 6-8.
154Posthumous. In CFS 14, pp. 25-35.
155Manuel pratique et théorique de Russe. Genève, Droz, 1956, 217 pp.
157CFS 13 (1955), pp. 19-33.
158CFS 18 (1961), pp. 5-15.
159CFS 19 (1962), pp. 67-76.
160On the Linguistic Society of Geneva (1940-1956), see R. Godel, L’école saussurienne de Geneve, in Trends in European and American Linguistics, p. 294, and CFS 1-14. Since 1957 the CFS have been pub- lished by an editorial board under the direction of H. Frei.
161Acta Linguistica 5 (1947), p. 55.
162Paris, Geuthner; Genève, W. Kündig; Leipzig, Harassowitz; 1929, 317 pp.
163՝Actes du 2e Congrès international de linguistes. Paris, 1933, pp. 187-190.
164Tokyo, 1936, 164 pp.
165Mélanges ... Charles Bally, Genève, 1939, pp. 185-192.
166Paris, Geuthner, 1940, 16 pp.
167CFS 1 (1941), pp. 45-56.
168Acta Linguistica 2 (1940-1941), pp. 137-150.
169CFS 2 (1942), pp. 15-27.
170Zeitschrift für Roman. Philologie (Halle) 60 (1940), pp. 359-362.
171Ibid., vol. 64 (1944), pp. 557-568.
172Lingua (Harlem) 1 (1947), pp. 25-33.
173Word 4 (1948), pp. 65-70.
174Acta Linguistica 4 (1944) , pp. 111-129.
175Zeitschrift für Phonetik und allgemeine Sprachwissenschaft (Ber- lin) 4 (1950), pp. 162-191.
176JPs, 1952, pp. 137-157.
177Gengo Kenkyü (Journal of the Linguistic Society of Japan) 31 (1956), pp. 22-50, and 32 (1957), pp. 83-115.
178Genève, Droz, 1953, 92 pp. Reprinted 1966 with some emenda- tions.
179CFS 12 (1954), pp. 29-47.
180Word 10 (1954), pp. 136-145.
181English Studies (Amsterdam) 36 (1955), pp. 278-281.
182For Roman Jakobson. Essays on the Occasion of his 60th Birth- day. The Hague, 1956, pp. 161-168.
183Zeitschrift für Phonetik... 10 (1957), pp. 26-29.
184CFS 16 (1959), pp. 3-21.
185CFS 17 (I960), pp. 47-53.
186Word 16 (1960), pp. 317-322.
187Studii si cercetari linguistice (Bucarest), year XI (1960), pp. 475-
188CFS 18 (1961), pp. 35-51.
189CFS 19 (1962), pp. 87-91.
190Lingua 11 (1962), pp. 128-140.
191CFS 20 (1962), pp. 55-62.
192Lingua 12 (1963), pp. 423-428.
193CFS 22 (1966), pp. 41-51.
194To appear in Handbuch der geisteswissenschaftlichen Arbeitsmethoden, Münich, Oldenburg.
195To appear in Mélanges Marcel Cohen.
196To Honor Roman Jakobson. The Hague, Mouton, 1967, pp. 688-691.
197See above, p. 3 and notes 24-28.
198Segno e struttura linguistici. .. (mentioned above, note 28), p. 47.
199CFS 19 (1962), pp. 5-66, and 21 (1964), pp. 25-32.
200Wiesbaden, D. Harassowitz. Vols. I-III, 1967-1968; vol. IV forth- coming.
201Genève, 1945, 223 pp.
202CFS 7 (1947-1948), pp. 5-15.
203CFS 11 (1953), pp. 31-41.
204Studia Linguistica (Lund) 7 (1953), pp. 90-99.
205CFS 13 (1955), pp. 33-44.
206CFS 18 (1961), pp. 53-69.
207Revue des Etudes Arméniennes (Paris), Nouv. série II (1965), pp. 21-41.
208Current Trends in Linguistics, vol. 3 (1966), pp. 479-493.
209CFS 22 (1966), pp. 53-68.
210He studied Sumerian under Anton Deimel at the Pontifical Biblical Institute in Rome, and Akkadian with Albrecht Goetze while doing research work at Yale University as a post-doctoral fellow, thanks to a grant from the Fonds national suisse de la Recherche scientifique.
211CFS 11 (1953), pp. 45-46.
212CFS 9 (1950), pp. 51-88 (I. Essai d’analyse phonématique du vieux sumérien. Classement des phonèmes. à© Système des éléments sym- phones du complexe nominal ).
213Contribution à la grammaire sumérienne. Le système verbal dans les inscriptions “royales” présargoniques de Lagal. Genève, Droz, 1952, 261 pp.
214Genève, Droz, 1954, 218 pp.
215՝Phonétique et grammaire comparatives pour renseignement de Vallemand dans les écoles primaires et secondaires de langue française, CFS 16 (1959), pp. 33-90.
*First published in the Anuario de ~ i l o l o ~ zAhi,lo V, No. 5 (1966) of the University of Zulia (Maracaibo), Venezuela. The study appears herd both revised and expanded. Abbreviationsaused: BSLP = Bulletin de la Soci6th de Linguistique de Paris (Paris, 1871 and following years); CFS = Cahz'ers Ferdinand de Saussure (Geneva, 1941 and following years); CLG = F. de Saussure, Cours de linguistique ginhrale, published by Charles Bally and Albert Sechehaye with the collaboration of Albert Riedlinger (Lausanne-Paris: Payot et Cie., 1916); JPs =Journal de Psychologie normale et pathologique (Paris: Alcan, 1904 and following years); MSLP= ~ i m o i r e dse la Sociiti de Linguistique de Paris (Par i s , 1868 and following years); and TCLP = Travaux du Cercle linguistique de Prague (Prague, 1929 and following years).