GENERAL REFERENCE MATERIALS
This section contains a few standard historical works and supplementary volumes, of which D. G. E. Hall, A History of Southeast Asia, John F. Cady, Southeast Asia: Its Historical Development, and George Coedès, The Indianized States of Southeast Asia, are the outstanding examples. Geographical source materials, most notably Charles A.Fisher’s Southeast Asia: A Social, Economic and Political Geography, are also cited. Certain political, economic, ethnographic, and cultural studies which treat Thailand as part of the Southeast Asian region are likewise ineluded here. Of particular interest is the oft-cited little volume Social Forces in Southeast Asia by Cora DuBois. Finally, two additional types of works are included: the handbooks which are broadly useful Thai reference sources, and a few of the popular and impressionistic volumes by experienced Western observers of the Thai scene. Of the latter, W. A.R. Wood’s Consul in Paradise is a pleasant vignette. In his words, “It consists merely of a little of the froth collected by a cork which has floated for sixtyeight years on the seas of Siamese and Anglo-Siamese life.”
Atlas of Physical, Economic and Social Resources of the Lower Mekong Basin. Washington, D.C.: Engineer Agency for Resources Inventories, Department of the Army, and the Tennessee Valley Authority, September, 1968. 257 pages.
This Atlas (prepared under the direction of the U.S. Agency for International Development by TVA and the Engineer Agency for Resources Inventories for the U.N. Committee for Coordination of Investigations of the Lower Mekong Basin) is an impressive inventory in cartographic and narrative form of natural and man-made resources within the drainage basin of the Mekong River. The inventory is classified into thirty-eight separate topics under three main section headings: physical resources, human resources, and social and economic infrastructure. The large collection of beautifully prepared, multicolored maps permits visual perception of various development possibilities and alternatives within the four riparian countries of the Lower Mekong Basin.
Benda, Harry J., and John A. Larkin (eds.). The World of Southeast Asia: Selected Historical Readings. New York: Harper & Row, 1967. 331 pages.
A collection of readings and documents, each prefaced by a brief author’s statement, which focuses on the internal developments of various Southeast Asian societies rather than on their external relations. Emphasis is on the modern period, though a number of the selections are on pre-modern Southeast Asia. Many of the selections are by Asian authors and several deal specifically with Thailand.
Black, Eugene R. Alternative in Southeast Asia. New York: Praeger, 1969. 192 pages.
Argues that regionalism, focusing on the Mekong Basin, is the best alternative in Southeast Asia, and that the United States should work toward fostering this end, rather than acting in the role of “policeman” or withdrawing from the area. The foreword is by Lyndon B. Johnson.
Blanchard, Wendell, et al. Thailand: Its People, Its Culture. New Haven: Human Relations Area Files Press, 1958. 528 pages.
A useful general reference source on contemporary Thailand. This volume is dated in some respects and treats its materials somewhat unevenly, but contains detailed descriptions of everyday life, village organizations, religion, government, the arts, and social structure. Includes interpretations as well as facts.
Bone, Robert C. Contemporary Southeast Asia. New York: Random House, 1962. 132 pages.
A brief survey of the history, governments, politics, and social and cultural characteristics and problems of Southeast Asia, beginning with the era of Western colonization. Limited treatment of Thailand, but useful as a quick introductory survey of the region.
Burling, Robbins. Hill Farms and Paddy Fields: Life in Mainland Southeast Asia. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1965. 180 pages.
An easy introduction, from an anthropological viewpoint, to aspects of Southeast Asia’s traditional agricultural systems. Excludes Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines.
Busch, Noel F. Thailand: An Introduction to Modern Siam. Princeton: Van Nostrand, 1959. 166 pages.
A sympathetic and readable popular introduction, with chapters on history, current affairs, government, religion, arts, customs, and people. Some perceptive personal observations.
Buss, Claude A. The Arc of Crisis. New York: Doubleday, 1961. 479 pages.
The “arc of crisis” extends from Japan to Pakistan, according to the author. The book is essentially an effort to explain the area in political and social terms, and to interpret Asian reactions to and perspectives on the United States and U.S. foreign policy values and objectives. Also discusses communism in the area. An informative essayistic work rather than a systematic analysis.
Butwell, Richard. Southeast Asia Today — and Tomorrow: A Politicai Analysis. Second revised edition. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1969. 245 pages.
A brief survey of government and politics in Southeast Asia which includes some treatment of Thailand.
Cady, John F. Southeast Asia: Its Historical Development. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964. 657 pages.
An ambitious history, to the end of World War Π, which covers much the same ground as Hall, although not always in comparable depth. Nevertheless this is a good historical introduction to Southeast Asia.
Cady, John F. Thailand, Burma, Laos, and Cambodia. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1966. 152 pages.
A brief but informative monograph on the four Theravada Buddhist countries of Southeast Asia. Assumes that the cuiturai and historical development of the countries, derived in part from a common Indian heritage, can be correlated in a meaningful way. The emphasis is primarily pre-twentieth century.
Chu, Valentin. Thailand Today: A Visit to Modern Siam. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1968. 200 pages.
A subjective account of personal experiences in Thailand, describing the socio-cultural changes taking place within that nation. Political and economic change are also treated briefly. Asserts that despite modernizing trends “Thailand’s cultural borrowing will be selective and not destructive of the national psyche.”
Coedès, George. The Indianized States of Southeast Asia: An English Translation of Les États hindouisès d’Indochine et d’Indone sie. Edited by Walter F. Vella and translated by Susan Brown Cowing. Honolulu: East-West Center Press, 1968. 403 pages.
Perhaps no one has made a greater contribution to Southeast Asian classical scholarship than George Coedès. This book, first published in Hanoi in 1944 under the title Histoire ancienne des états hindouisês d’Extrême-Orient, is not so much a history as an attempt to offer a synthesis showing how the various elements of the history are related.
Coedès, George. The Making of Southeast Asia. Translated by H. M. Wright. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1966. 268 pages.
This survey, originally published in 1962 as Les Peuples de la peninsula indochinoise: Histoire -civilisations, traces the development of the mainland states from prehistoric times, through the Indianization of Burma, Thailand, Laos, and Cambodia and the Sinicization of Vietnam, to the decline of Indian influence in the thirteenth century.
Credner, Wilhelm. Siam, Das Land Der Tai. Stuttgart: J. Engelbhorns, 1936. 422 pages.
A geography based upon extensive field study in the late 1920’s. Includes data on geology, climate, rainfall, land and water resources, as well as on the people, the government, and the economy. A thorough and useful work, still in many ways the single most authoritative Western-language source of geographical information on Thailand.
Cressey, George B. Asia’s Lands and Peoples. Second edition. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1963. 597 pages.
A popular geography text that includes a chapter on Thailand. A brief bibliography (p. 567) identifies a few items not noted in this guide.
Crozier, Brian. Southeast Asia in Turmoil. London: Penguin, 1965. 206 pages.
A British journalist’s interpretation of communism and military conflict in the region. Some discussion of SEATO and American policy in Southeast Asia.
Dobby, E.H.G. Monsoon Asia. Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1961. 380 pages.
A standard geographical reference, containing a short chapter on the physical geography of continental Southeast Asia, and information on economic and political geography.
Döhring, Karl Siegfried. Siam. 2 vols. Munich: Georg Müller, 1923.
German-language descriptive treatment by an art historian and ethnographer who also wrote extensively on Thai art and religion.
DuBois, Cora. Social Forces in Southeast Asia. New edition. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1959. 78 pages.
Originally presented in the form of three lectures delivered at Smith College in 1947, these essays are interesting for their predictions concerning political and social development in Southeast Asia.
Embree, John F., and William L. Thomas, Jr. Ethnic Map and Gazetteer of Northern Southeast Asia. New Haven: Southeast Asian Studies, Yale University, 1950. 175 pages.
Ethnolinguistic data on people of Yunnan, North Burma, Laos, Vietnam, and Thailand.
Emerson, Rupert. Representative Government in Southeast Asia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1955. 197 pages.
Includes a brief discussion of lawmaking institutions in Thailand as of the mid-1950’s.
Exell, F. K. The Land and People of Thailand. London: Adam and Charles Black; New York: Macmillan, 1960. 96 pages.
A short popular sketch, broad in scope and sympathetic in treatment. Like the Busch volume mentioned above, this is a simple, discerning, and informative book.
Fifield, Russell H. Southeast Asia in United States Policy. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1963. 488 pages.
One of the best standard textbooks in the field. Examines the evolution of American policy in Southeast Asia, communism, SEATO, the Laotian crisis, and the regional influence of Japan and India.
Fisher, Charles Alfred. Southeast Asia: A Social, Economic and Political Geography. Second edition. London: Methuen, 1967. 831 pages.
This is the most comprehensive survey of contemporary Southeast Asia available —a scholarly textbook, erudite, and beautifully organized. The first six chapters deal with the region as a whole. The following fifteen chapters examine the countries individually, detailing their social, economic and political problems in the appropriate geographical setting. A final chapter considers the changing relationships of the region with the outside world.
Ginsburg, Norton. The Pattern of Asia. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1958. 929 pages.
A standard work on geography, distinguished by the range of its coverage. Includes a chapter on the geography of Thailand as part of a larger section on Southeast Asia. Some details are inevitably dated in a book that was five years in the writing, but this hardly impairs its basic value. A splendid set of maps and illustrations is included.
Golay, Frank., Ralph Anspach, M. Ruth Pfanner, and Eliezer Β. Ayal. Underdevelopment and Economic Nationalism in Southeast Asia. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1969. 528 pages.
A valuable survey of economic nationalism in post-war Southeast Asia (Philippines, Indonesia, Burma, Thailand, Malaya, South Vietnam, and Cambodia), stressing local variation in economic policies. Nine “country” chapters, with the last essay summarizing and comparing principal indigenous aspects.
Gordon, Bernard K. Toward Disengagement in Asia: A Strategy for American Foreign Policy. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1969. 186 pages.
A balanced attempt to answer two basic questions: How can the nations of Asia best promote their own development? And what is America’s national interest and role in that undertaking? Genuine regional cooperation and organization is seen as the answer to the first question; American policy and material support, as the answer to the second. The author considers Southeast Asia a power vacuum threatened by China, although the opposite view is noted fairly. (This book is about Southeast and East Asia, and not about Asia as a whole.)
Graham, Walter A. Siam. 2 vols. London: Alexander Moring, 1924.
The best comprehensive survey of Thailand as of the early twentieth century. Originally written in 1912, expanded in the later editions, and still germane. Volume I includes chapters on geography, history, social organization, ethnic groups, education, language, and literature. Volume II deals with industry, commerce, communications, art, and religion. Well-indexed and well-informed. Generous in its interpretation of the reign of Chulalongkorn’s immediate successor.
Hall, D. G. E. A History of Southeast Asia. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1955. 807 pages.
A monumental history and valuable reference work. Organized chronologically by period as follows: pre-European, early phase of European expansion, European territorial expansion, period of nationalism and challenge to European domination. A revised 1964 edition includes additional material on the Philippines and on ex-colonial developments within Southeast Asia since 1950.
Harrison, Brian. South-East Asia: A Short History. Second edition, London: Macmillan; New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1963. 270 pages.
Not as compendious as the Hall or Cady histories, and significantly less informative about Thailand.
Heine-Geldern, Robert. Conceptions of State and Kingship in Southeast Asia. Ithaca: Cornell University, Southeast Asia Program, Data Paper No. 18, 1963. 14 pages.
A brief comparative statement which includes a description of the position of the monarchy in traditional Thailand.
Insor, D. Thailand: A Political, Social, and Economic Analysis. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1963. 186 pages.
A popular introduction, interesting, readable, and informative. Fairly extensive description of modern Thai politics and foreign policy. Despite the title, this is not a systematic analysis.
Jayanama, Direck, Klaus Wenk, and Max Biehl. Thailand. Hamburg: Das Institut für Asienkunde; Frankfurt and Berlin: Alfred Metzner Verlag, 1960. 122 pages.
Three papers, one a description of Thai religion, government, society, and foreign relations by Khun Direck; the others are concerned with Thai-German relations and the domestic economy of Thailand.
Kennedy, J. Asian Nationalism in the Twentieth Century. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1968. 244 pages.
Part I is a survey and analysis of the varied patterns of modern Asian nationalism, covering Japan, China, the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia, and Western Asia. Part II consists of selections from the speeches and writings of Asian leaders and the accounts of contemporary observers. A wellwritten if somewhat thin source.
Lach, Donald F. Southeast Asia in the Eyes of Europe: The Sixteenth Century. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968. 130 pages.
A reprint of Part III, Chapter VII, Volume I of the author’s very fine Asia in the Making of Europe. The account, though partial and incomplete, reveals the prominence of Chinese and Muslims in the life of the region, the importance of Malacca in its commerce, the high degree of political independence of the continental states, and the isolation and primitive condition of some of the insular areas.
le May, Reginald S. A Concise History of Buddhist Art in Siam. See Section G-3.
le May, Reginald S. The Culture of South-East Asia. See Section G-3.
MacDonald, Alexander. Bangkok Editor. New York: Macmillan, 1949. 229 pages.
This book by the founder of the English-language Bangkok Post gives a general background on journalism in Bangkok, including material on press censorship, personnel, and advertising. Comments on political developments in early post-war Thailand.
Mills, Lennox A. Southeast Asia: Illusion and Reality in Politics and Economics. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1964. 365 pages.
An economic and political survey. Includes brief treatments of post-monarchical Thai government and politics, of Thailand’s China policy, and of foreign aid and investment. Perhaps one tenth of this book deals with Thai topics.
Myint, Hla. “The Inward and Outward Looking Countries of Southeast Asia and the Economic Future of the Region.” See Section E-l.
Pendleton, Robert L., with Robert C. Kingsbury, et al. Thailand: An American Geographical Society Handbook. New York: Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 1962. 321 pages.
A useful reference volume, containing information on subjects ranging from geography and geology to agriculture and forestry. Includes statistical charts and tables, although the reference materials are often dated. The descriptions of geography and resources are particularly useful.
Report of the Asian Population Conference and Selected Papers.Bangkok: Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East; New York: United Nations Secretariat, 1964. 207 pages.
An invaluable collection of papers on the demographic situation in Asia. Papers on: population trends; implications for educational planning, urban development, housing, and health programs; growth and structure of national production; measures for increasing employment; national policies aimed at influencing internal migration and urbanization; promotion of population research and training; and structure of the labor force in Asian countries.
Schaaf, C. Hart, and Russell H. Fifield. The Lower Mekong: Challenge to Cooperation in Southeast Asia. Princeton: Van Nostrand, 1963. 136 pages.
Describes the physical potentialities for the development of the Lower Mekong River, and considers — from a rather optimistic view — the political and diplomatic requirements for implementing a scheme demanding substantial cooperation between Thailand and neighboring states. Schaaf was Executive Agent of the United Nation’s Mekong Project.
Shaplen, Robert. Time Out of Hand: Revolution and Reaction in Southeast Asia. New York: Harper & Row, 1969. 465 pages.
A superior survey of the contemporary Southeast Asian politicai scene by an outstanding commentator. The chapter on Thailand examines insurgency problems in the Northeast and the South, and government counter insurgency programs.
Steinberg, David Joel (ed.). In Search of Southeast Asia: A Modem History. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1970. 544 pages.
A regional history, organized along thematic lines that impose more of a focus than do other histories upon the mass of materials comprising the recorded background of this complex region. Begins with a well-organized survey of the Eighteenth Century, traces and assesses the impact of the West and the emergence of the foundations for new Southeast Asian states. Examines Twentieth Century nationalism and social change in Thailand and seven other Southeast Asian states. A distinctive treatment, marked by its analytic orientation, and by the fact that it is to an impressive degree a synthesis of contributions by six scholars, including David K. Wyatt, the primary author of the Thai materials. Includes an extensive bibliography.
Thailand Official Yearbook, 1968. Bangkok: Office of the Prime Minister, 1968. 728 pages.
A collection of official information on many facets of Thailand. Fifteen sections and an appendix deal with government, foreign affairs, defense, welfare, health, and justice, as well as the economy. Also data on education, religion, art, sports, population, and tourism. The sections vary considerably in quality and much of the data is unreliable. (The previous edition of the Yearbook was published in 1964.)
Thompson, Virginia, and Richard Adloff. “Thailand (Siam),” in The State of Asia: A Contemporary Survey. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1959, pp. 268-291.
A brief, general account of political and economic developments in Thailand in the years immediately following World War Π.
Tiiman, Robert 0.(ed.). Man, State, and Society in Contemporary Southeast Asia. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1969. 520 pages.
About thirty specialists describe and assess social, political, and economic characteristics of the Southeast Asian region and nine of its countries, including Thailand. The most recent and most comprehensive collection of readings intended for college text use.
U.S. Army Area Handbook for Thailand. Prepared by the Foreign Area Studies Division, Special Operations Research Office, American University, Washington, D.C., 1963. 487 pages.
A broad compilation of secondary-source information on Thai culture and society, politics, economics, and formal characteristics of the Thai military.
Von der Mehden, Fred. Religion and Nationalism in Southeast Asia. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1959. 250 pages.
A study of the interaction of religion and nationalism in Southeast Asia and an attempt to show the extent to which religion is used to promote nationalism. Covers the region with particular emphasis on Burma, Indonesia, and the Philippines.
Wales, H.G. Quaritch. Ancient Southeast Asian Warfare. London: Bernard Quaritch, 1952. 206 pages.
Includes interesting descriptions of war as a facet of traditional Thai society, and discusses in idealized terms the relationship between Buddhism and militarism in traditional Thailand.
Wales, H. G. Quaritch. Years of Blindness. New York: Thomas Y. C r owe 11, 1943. 332 pages.
This book is useful not as a general history of Western imperialism in Asia, which it professes to be, but as an interesting personal commentary on the Thai monarchy in the 1920’s and on the 1932 Thai revolution.
Wood, W. A. R. Consul in Paradise: Sixty-nine Years in Siam. London: Souvenir Press, 1965. 175 pages.
A personal, anecdotal account that captures a bit of the flavor of Thai culture in “the old days.”
Young, Kenneth T., Jr. The Southeast Asia Crisis, Background Papers and Proceedings of the Eighth H ammar skjold Forum. New York: Oceana Publications, for the Association of the Bar of the City of New York, 1966. 226 pages.
An assessment of United States involvement in Southeast Asia by the former president of the Asia Society and former U.S. Ambassador to Thailand. Includes discussions of Chinese power and prospects for regionalism.