Material for this study of European-American film industry relations has come predominantly from interviews, supported by printed sources and correspondence. Collection of data began on a major scale in 1961, although some preliminary research was done before then to test the feasibility of the project. The author was fortunate to spend the 1962-63 academic year in Europe expanding the research which had been carried on in the United States. He returned to Europe for short periods in 1965, 1967, and 1968. During the European phase of investigation, the author talked extensively with key people in business, government, official international bodies, academic circles, labor groups, and other professional areas allied to the film industry. The time spent in Europe proved useful for acquiring considerable amounts of documentation, original material, and statistical data not available in the United States, as well as for viewing films and for firsthand examination of the various countries. Research was conducted in the United Kingdom, Ireland, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Norway, Denmark, West Germany, Switzerland, Italy, and Spain.
As the task began of interviewing people in the United States and Europe, it soon became apparent that the only way of obtaining any amount of information was to conduct the interviews on a “no attribution” basis. In a great number of instances, an interview was granted solely upon the condition that the interviewee would not be quoted by name in the text. Some statistical data, trade agreements, and related information were obtained on the same condition. In taking these requests into account, the author decided to follow a consistent policy of not attributing to a particular individual, company, or association any statement made during an interview.
It is appropriate, however, to recognize and thank a number of people, companies, and associations who were especially helpful. By necessity, this list is abbreviated and the author pleads guilty to the sin of omission. Claude Degand, Centre National de la Cinematographic, Paris; Jean-Claude Batz, l’Universite’ Libre de Bruxelles; National Film Finance Corporation; British Film Producers Association; Federation of British Film Makers; Kinematograph Renters Society; Association of Cinematograph, Television and Allied Technicians; Direction General de Cinematografia y Teatro, Madrid; Associazione Nazionale Industrie Cinematografiche ed Affini, Rome; Nederlandsche Bioscoop-Bond; Spitzenorganisation der Filmwirtschaft, Wiesbaden; Press and Information Service of the European Communities, Brussels; Chambre Syndicale Beige de la Cinematographic, Brussels; Nordisk Films Kompagni, Copenhagen; Kommunale Kinematografers Landsforbund, Oslo; Norske Filmbyraers Sammenslut-ning, Oslo; Television Program Export Association; Motion Picture Export Association; Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer; Twentieth Century-Fox; Paramount; and Columbia.
A wide range of printed materials was used in this study. Documents and information from governmental and international bodies have been very important. They include reports, laws, legislative debates and hearings, and statistical analyses. Trade publications, as noted in the bibliography, also have contributed in some measure to the storehouse of information. One of these is Variety which has been important for cuing investigation to time periods and events during the last twenty years.
Motion picture companies and trade associations in the United States and Europe also have been useful sources of information. Annual reports, publications, and speeches by key personnel have yielded material for this survey. Scholarly and professional writing on European and American film relations have provided structured and thoughtful examinations which other sources of information frequently lacked. The scarcity of these writings, however, is certainly a reason for this study.
Correspondence with key agencies and people has been helpful for throwing light on specific problems and for clearing up questions which have arisen.
To the greatest extent possible, material has been checked to assure accuracy of detail. Published information has been matched with material collected from other sources for verification. Interviews provided the chance for corroborating details and for seeing matters from different points of view. In a few instances, trade associations and some individuals declined cooperation—complete or partial—with the study.