- A -
Aboue, adv. and prep. (also abown, abowyn) [OE. abufan], Above, in pitch or position:
c1425 Cut ell, Treat. Disc. 700.44 Alle the accordes of discant ben a-bown the playne song invoys. c1450 Pow., Treat. Counter. 243.1 He most ymagyne . . . his 10the pe 3de note ... aboul pe playnsong. c1450 Anon., Treat. Counter. 259.24, 25 The 2de a-boue in sight is a 6te a-boue in voise.
Abown, Abowyn [cf. aboue]
Absolucion, sb. [OF. absolution; L. absolutio], The formula for absolution.
1400- Rewl. of Sust. 105.13 The absolucions, as Exaudi, domine, Ipsius pietas & A uinculis, alle wey schullen be seyde in here places & in dayes ferialis pe one after pe oper, alle powe pat a Gospel be seyde. Ibid. 105.18 The absolucions schullin be seyde in pe tune of chapitres.
Accent, sb. [L. accentus], App., the degree of stress accorded any particular musical tone.
1398 Trev., De Prop. Re. 19.131.941 Tonus is the sharpenesse of voys & is difference and quantyte of armony and stondyth in Accent and Tenor of voys.
Accord, sb. (also acord) [OF. acorde],
I.Any congruous arrangement of vocal or instrumental musical sounds; harmony, agreement, consonance:
c1340 Rolle, Psalt. 150.4.12 Acorde, as of sere voicys, noght discordand, is swete sange. 1369 Ch., Duchess 305 For som of hem song lowe, Som high, and al of oon acord. c1382 Ch., Parliament F. 197 Of instruments of strenges in acord Herde I so pleye a ravyshynge swetnesse. 1387 Trev., Poly. 2.229.6,11 And he fonde proporciouns and acorde of melodye by wyte in pe hameres, and so pey vsed hym moche in pe acorde of melodye, but he was noute fyndere of pe instruments of musik, ffor pey were i-founde longe afterward. 1398 Trev., De Prop. Re. 19.136,944 And by accorde of hyghe and lowe therof comyth full swete notes ... Neuerthelesse the accorde of all sownes hyghte Symphonia in lyke wyse as the accorde of dyse voyce hyghte Chorus. 1431-1438 Lyd., Fall of Pr. 3.6.351 Accord in musik causith the mellodie. a1450 Lyd., Min. Po.l, Def. of Holy Ch. 31.21 In prys and honour of hir eternall lorde, On instruments of musik in accorde. a1450 Lyd., Min. Po.2, Mum, for Gold. of Lon. 699.33 Of oon acorde Shewepe your melodye, Syngepe for ioye, pat pe arke is sent. *1483 Caxton, G. Leg. 412.1 Somtyme they sange psalmes aboute the aulter .. by accorde to gyder. c1500 Ry., Songs 303.3 With on accorde angellis didde sing: ‘Te deum laudamus.’
II.A consonant interval; in the fifteenth century, the third, fifth, sixth, octave, and compounds of these: 1387 Trev., Poly. 3.209.4 Whanne pese acordes were i-founde Pictagoras af hem names, and so pat he cleped in noumbre double, he clepep [dyapason ...]. c1425 Cutell, Treat. Disc. 700.19 And of alle imperfite accordes it is leueful to take iij, iiij, or 5 of a kynd. c1425 Anon., Treat. Disc. 699.47 With these Accordys of Discant any Discanter may both rise and faul with the Playne Song. c1450 Pow., Treat. Counter. 242.15 But for pe quatrebil syghte, per be 9 acordis of discant: the vnisoun, 3de, 5te, 6te, 8te, 10the, 12the, 13the, & 15the. Ibid. 249.18 These a-cordis must pu kun-sette to-gedir as I haue her enformyd the yf pu wilt medle wel pi counterpoint. c1450 Anon., Treat. Counter. 258.21 Of pe whech 9 a-cordis per be 5 perfite & 4 inperfite. c1450 Chilst., Treat. Mus. Prop. 269.34 Dyapason pat is proporcio 21a is pe most perfite acorde aftir pe vnisoun be-twene pe extremyteis of pe dyapason.
III.That note forming a consonance with a given note:
c1450 Pow., Treat. Counter. 243.11 Gamut hath 3 acordis: re, mi, sol be proprechaunt. Ibid. 244.1 Cefaut hathe 4 acordis: mi, sol, la be proprechaunt, & ffa be quarre in Csolfaut. c1450 Anon., Treat. Counter. 258.32 And with pese acordis of descaunt euery descanter may ryse in voyse & falle with pe plain-song.
Accord, adj. or adv. (also acorde) [cf. accord, sb.], In harmony:
c1385 Ch., Troilus 5.446 Nor in this world ther is non instrument Delicious, thorugh wynd or touche of corde, … That at that feste it nas wel herd acorde.
Accordance, sb. (also accordaunce, acordaunce, acordauns) [OF. acordance],
c1369 Ch., Romaunt R. 496 Ful blisful was the accordaunce Of swete and pitous song thei made. 1400-1450 Lyd., Daunce of Mach. 535 For in musike by craft and accordaunce Who maister is [shal] shewen his science. c1425 S. Christ. Mir. 129.36 But pat songe was latyne and feyre sette to-gadir wip many clauses of acordauns.
II.Collectively, the consonant intervals (See accord, II):
c1425 Anon., Treat. Disc. 699.38 It is to witt that ther are accordaunce withouten noumber, but there are ix in use whych ix be these: the Unison, the thyrde, the ffyfte, [etc.].
Accordandist, adj. (also acordandist) [cf. accordant], Most harmonious:
c1340 Rolle, Psalt. 150.4.10 Bot that thai sown all samyn in acordandist dyuersite.
Accordant, adj. and ppl. adj. (also accordaunt, acordant, acordaunt) [OF. acordant], Harmonious, melodious; in agreement with:
c1382 Ch., Parliament F. 203 Ther with a wynd, unnethe hit myghte be lesse, Made in the leves grene a noyse softe Acordaunt to the foules song on-lofte. c1390 Ch., Miller 3362 He syngeth in his voys gentil and smal ... Ful wel acordaunt to his gyternynge. 1390-1410 Vis, of Tund. 57.1780 And ay as they wer syngand Her vocys was euer to God acordant As melodyes of musyk clere That full delectabull was to here. Ibid. 61.1928 Ay mekyll folke were syngande Full swetly with a mery stevon With all maner of musyk acordant eyvon. C1400 Cuck. and Night. 573.18 And the river that I sate upon, It made such a noise as it ron, Accordaunt with the birdes armony. c1450 Life of St. Cuth. 111.3792 Of pe psalme pe remanant To Pis entent es accordant. c1460 Secreta of Sec. 98.30 And fyue tones er of Musyke, and if Pe ne were no songe were accordant or perfyt.
Accordaunce [cf. accordance]; Accordaunt [cf. accordant]
Accordement, sb. (also acordement) [OF. acordement]. Agreement, harmony:
1390-1393 Gow., Con. Aman. 7.168 The seconde of Mathematique, Which is the science of Musique, That techeth upon Armonie A man to make melodie Be vois and soun of instrument Thurgh notes of acordement.
Accorden, vb. (also acorden, acordyn) [OF. acorder], intr., To be in tune with; to harmonize:
c1370 Wye.1, Of Con. 341.1 And sorowe of trespasse aeyns hem ten shal wraste Pis harpe to a-corde welle. 1398 Trev., De Prop. Re. 18.1.738 And yf a man sgyth to a pype and to a trompe: it semyth that thys beestis voyce accordyth with the trompe & tune and melodye. 1412-1420 Lyd., Troy Bk. 1.2.4142 In sondry wyse pat made melodie, Pat to heren Pe heuenly armonye Be musik touchid vp-on string & corde, So euen in on & iustly Pei acorde.
According, ger. (accordyng) [cf. accorden]:
1398 Trev., De Prop. Re. 19.131.941 And suche accordyng of voys hyghte Enphonia [sic], that is swetnesse of voys and hyghte also Melodye. .. . But in many voyces accordynge in one is proporcyon of Armony and melodye other swete Symphonia.
According, ppl. adj. [cf. accorden]:
1398 Trev., De Prop. Re. 19.131.941 Symphonia is temperate modulacion accordynge in sownes highe & lowe.
Accordyng [cf. according]; Acord [cf. accord]; Acordandist [cf. accordandist]; Acordant [cf. accordant]; Acordaunce, Acordauns [cf. accordance]; Acordaunt [cf. accordant]; Acordement [cf. accordement]; Acorden [cf. accorden]; Acordinge [cf. according]
Acute, sb. [L. acutus ],
I.Any prime note, as a1, etc., varying in value according to the notational system in use:
c1450 Anon., Treat. Counter. 264.14 Ðe plain-song hauntiP his course eyPir in acutis fro Gsolreut aboue to Gsolreut be-nePe.
II.A high note, probably d11, lying immediately below the superacute:
c1504 Corn., Tr. and Enf. 471.10 I assaide to acute and when I came Enformacõn was mete for a doble dyatesseron.
Æfensang, sb. [cf. even-song]
Agnus Dei, sb. (also Agnus, Angus Dei) [L. Agnus Dei], A plainchant comprised of three invocations, each beginning with the words Agnus Dei (“Lamb of God”), which forms, except for the dismissory formula, the last item in the Ordinary of the Mass; the time or the occurrence of this chant.
1350-1400 Spir. Guy. (T) 2.296.227 And agnus dei when Pai said (thrise), Pai herd ane answer on Pis (wise). c1350 Gast of Gy 12.207 And after ‘laudes’ Pai said in hy Pe seuen psalmes with Pe letany; And, ‘Agnus Dei.’ 1370-1400 Lay Folk. M. B. (B) 46.508 He saies agnus thryse ar he cese. 1370-1380 How To Hear Mass 508.590 To Pe Angus dei he gop ful son. 1387 Trev., Poly. 7.38.2 Wherfore in Pe feste of seynt Anyan bis shop of Aurelianes, whanne he hadde lefte his oost aboute a castel Pat he hadde byseged, and song Pries Agnus Dei et cetera, berynge a cope, and knelynge on his knees, Pe walles of Pe castel byseged sodenly fil downe. c1389 Wye.2, On Twenty - Five Art. 3.481.21 Wip huge unkyndenes and horribul traytory of synnes, touchyd thryes in Agnus Dei. c1400 Apol. for Loll. Doctr. 8.14 Als oft as a nobil man seip it bi twex the consecracioun and Agnus Dei. 1400- Rewl. of Sust. 106.9 And whan Agnus Dei is seyde, [pey] schal lye greueninge til the Post communions. c1440 Jac. Well 193.3 A munke, deed lying on bere in a cherche, at masse, at Agnus dei, he ros vp on Pe bere, & cursyd god. *1480 Caxton Chron. Eng. ccxxx. 245 After the iii agnus dei y seid.
Alamire, sb. [a + la + mi + re; cf. gamme], In the Guidonian system of hexachords, the musical tones a and a1, which may occur as la in the hexachordum naturale (on C), as mi in the hexachordum molle (on F), or as re in the hexachordum durum (on G):
c1450 Pow., Treat. Counter. 245.13 Alamire hape 4 acordis: vt, mi, ffa, la be proprechaunt: vt a 10, mi a 12, ffa a 13, la a 15. c1450 Anon., Treat. Counter. 264.17 & aftir pat . . . eypir in acutis fro Gsolreut a-boue to Gsolreut be-nepe, to close dunward in sight euyn vpon pe plain-song vpon one of pese keys, Dlasolre, Csolfaut, Alamire, or Gsolreut benepe.
Alas, sb. and int. (also alasse, ales, alhas, allas, helas) [OF. ha + a + las < lassus weary], The word alas in figurative musical contexts:
c1380 Rob. of Cis. 216.305 Allas, allas, was al his song. c1390 By. and Chich. 116.59 We may well sing and seyne allas. c1400 Brut (A) 1.73.6 Wherfore, ‘allas’ shal bene Pe commune songe of faderless folc. c1430 Aud., Poems 3.71 Here twey wayes, my sone, per be; . . . Chese pe better, Y consel pe, Lest pou syng pe sung alasse. c1440 Yk. Pl., Dep. of Is. 75.128 And yf he lenger gar them lende, His sange ful sone sail be, ‘allas’! c1450 Lydg.4, Song on Bat. of Bar. 310.28 Allas! may he syng that causyd all thys. c1460 Town. Pl., Cruc. 270.406 Alas! may euer be my sang Whyls I may lyf in leyd. 1475-1499 Part. of Blois 6223 For whyle I lyffe, ‘Allas, allas’ May be my songe, I wotte ryghte well.
Alasse [cf. alas]
Aleluya, sb. (also alleluia, alleluja, alleluy, alleluya) [L. alleluia < Heb. alleluia “Praise ye the Lord.”],
I.A song of praise or gladness; also a part, usually the conclusion, of a sacred song or chant: a1200 In Sept. 2.53.14 Ðat we ne singeð Po blisfulle songes. Alleluia and te deum laudamus. 1300-1325 Gosp. of Nic. (G) 120.1540 A sang pai said with ane assent pat was pis, ‘Alleluya.’ 1338 Rob. Man. of Br., Rim. St. of Eng. 2.524.15096,15097 Ffor our synnes we singe Alleluya. Alleluya ys forto seye ‘Make me saf, God, er y deye!’ 1390-1410 Vis. of Tund. 60.1880 They song all ther with myld chere Aleluya. 1398-1405 Curs. M. (C) 3.18377 ‘A- men, alleluia!’ pai sang. 1400-1410 Non-Cy. Mys. Pl., Shr. Fr. 4.30 Alleluya schal be oure song, Sithen Crist, oure Lord, by angellus steuen. c1500 Lyr. in Angl. (2) 106.17.7 For now is fre pat erst was bonde; we mowe well synge, alleluya.
II.The name of an item in the Proper of the Mass which consists of a variable psalm verse preceded and followed by the Alleluia: *1398 Trev. tr. Barth. De P. R. ix.xxviii. (1495) 364 At Easter Alleluya is songe. 1400- Rewl. of Sust. 107.14 And in feriis bitwix paske & pentecoste, Alleluia in pe masse schal be seyde alwey wiP II Sustres. c1400 Mirk, Fest. 1.14 Ðerfor holy chyrch vsyth summe songes of melody, as Alleluja and oper. c1400 Rule of St. Ben. (Pr.) 16.12 Opir sexe salmis sungen wid alleluia. 1450-1500 Stanz. Life of Chr. 127.3789 But one alleluya bout mo we syngen pen.
Ales, Alhas, Allas [cf. alas]; Alleluia, Alleluja, Alleluy [cf. aleluya]; Alteraciõ [cf. alteracion]
Alteracion, sb. (also alteraciõ) [ML. alteratio alteration], In medieval notation, app. a mark indicating that the second of two notes which appear successively within one unit of perfection in triple mensuration is to be doubled in order that the unit contain the requisite three beats of triple mensuration (see the quotes in NED. under later dates):
c1500 Leck. Prov. 479.27 As in the alteraciones thou mayst pric curiously So may trouthe try the in thy noumbre made peruersly. c1504 Corn., Tr. and Enf. 468.24 Who kepith treue his tunys may not passe his soũdes his alteraciõs and prolaciõs must be prikked trewly. Ibid. 469.28 By thes colours many subtill alteracions ther is that will begile one thow in cunnyng he be wele spedde.
Amen, sb. and int. [L. and F. amen “so be it”], The word amen in musical contexts:
c1350 Eng. Met. Hom. 152.16 Amen, amen, we alle sing. c1390 North. Hom. Cyc. 276.21.25 Amen . . . we all synge, ffor of pat blis is non endynge. 1400- Curs. M. (F) 3.18352 Syng we to hym with-outyn pere Amen and Alleluia here. 1400- Rewl. of Sust. 109.19 At orisoun, be it at masse or houres, pey schul stonde vp whan per dominum ys in seyinge & turne toward pe auter til amen ys seyde. Ibid. 111.4 And sche whoche hap blessid pe tabel schal turne here to pe ymage, 3if any be in pe freytoure, & seyinge on hye, & syngynge Agimus tibi gratias &c. answer Amen.
Anfenere [cf. antifener]
Angel song, sb. (also aungel song) [L. angelus + song; cf. song], Any sacred song; devotional singing:
c1310 Marienleg. (A) 500.56 Wip angel song & miri play, Our leuedi adoun sche li3t Into pe chaumbre per he lay. 1387. Trev., Poly. 5.185.1 To pe aungel song pat hatte: ‘Gloria in excelsis.’
Angus Dei [cf. Agnus Dei]
Antefen, sb. (also antefin, antefne, antefone, anteph, ahteyn, anthem, anthom, antim, antimne, antiphone, antymph) [OE. antefn; ML. antiphona Gr. anti-phonos a sounding back],
I.A plainchant, usually short, with a scriptural, non-psalmodic Latin text, regularly forming a musical prelude and postlude to the intonation of psalms, but occasionally interpolated after the successive verses of a psalm, as in the Invitatory of Matins; also, a vernacular version of this :
1230-1250 Anc. R. 15.28,29 Ðe antefne Salue nos ase er. Ðe psalm Adte leuaui. pene antefne efter al vt, & tenne also er valleð to ðer eorðe. c1350 Gast of Gy 67.1108 In Placebo es puruayd Fyue psalmes, pat sall be sayd Aneli for pe euensang, With fyue antems als omang. 1400- Rewl. of Sust. 104.26,27 Whan II psalmis or IIII been seyde vpon one antime, pe quere schal stande vp while pe antym ys bigonne. Ibid. 104,39 For to eue pe antemes & for to tune pe psalmis per schul be ii chaunteressis. Ibid. 114.35 And it is for to knowe pat at alle double Festis, pe antemys schullyn be doublid at euynsonge & matyns wip owte more. 1400- 1425 Book of Pr. Couns. 135.17 And Pan, if Pow out schalt sey, loke not how mochel ne how litel pat it be, ne charge not what it is ne what it bemenip, be it orison, be it psalm, ympne or antime. c1400 Rule of St. Ben. (Pr.) 16.2 At pe Pridde tyme aiont wid pe “gloria patri”; and sipin efter pe nihend-ferpe salme wid pe antefen oupir wid-vten. Ibid. 17.18 In pe haly dais al sal be als we haue bi-fore said id on pe sundais, Bot pat te salmis and te antefens and te lescuns be saide als fallis to pe day. Ibid. 18.24 Cumplin sal be saide wid pre salmis wid-vten antefens. c1430 Lay Folk. pr. B. 53.20 Antem: Lord! if pou kepist wick-idnessis; lordl who schal susteyne? Ibid. 73.13 psalm: Ego dixi ... I seide: in pe myd-dil of my daies y schal go to pe atis of helle, etc. ... Antem: Ffrom pe ate of helle, Lord delyuere her soulis. c1449 pec., Rep. 1.200.22 Also in the anteme: O crux splendidor, et cætera, sungun at the ije. euensong in the same feeste.
II.A more extended and elaborate version of I, which is performed independently of psalmody; often, any one of the songs of the Blessed Virgin Mary, e.g., Alma Redemptoris Mater; also, a vernacular version of the normally Latin text: 1338 Rob. Man. of Br., Rim. St. of Eng. 2.524.15091 Ðer-wyp pey seide a fair anteme, Ihesu Crist al for to queme. 1370-1380 Mir. of our lady 141.20 Men herked his song ful likyngly: Hit was an Antimne of vre lady. Ibid. 142.21 He song pat Antimne eueriwhere, I- Called Alma Redemptoris Mater. c1385 Ch., Prioress 1850 To me she cam, and bad me for to synge This anthem verraily in my deyynge. c1440 Alph. Tales 186.27 And he began to syng pis antem, ‘O! pastor eterne’; and sang it softlie vnto pe end. 1471 Arriv. of K. Edw. IV 13.34 All the people shall honore the Roode, with the anthem, Ave, three tymes begon.
Antefin, Antefne, Antefone [cf. antefen]; Antefoner [cf. antifener]; Anteph, Anteyn, Anthem, Anthom [cf. antefen]; Anthyphonere [cf. antifener]
Antifener, sb. (also anfenere, antefoner, anthyphonere, antiffoner, antiphonar, antiphoner, antyfonere, anty- fyner, antyphaner, antyphonar, antyphoner) [L. antiphonarium], A book containing the musical service of the Divine Office, probably so-called from the prevalence of antiphons used in the liturgy. (Although the difference between the “grete antifener” and the “small antifener” may depend merely on the extent of the contents, musical manuscripts of large dimension began to appear about 1430. This fact, and the reference to manuscripts which are both old and small, suggest that size alone is the point of difference):
c1370 Wyc.l, F. Cont. L. 194.6 A lord, if alle e studie & traueile pat men han now abowte salisbury vss wip multitude of newe costly portos, antifeners, graielis, & alle opere bokis weren turned in-to makynge of biblis. c1385 Ch., Prioress 1709 As children lerned hire antiphoner. 1425 Found. St. Barth. 19.14 A Certeyne man toke a-way a boke frome this place that we callith an Antiphonere, the whiche was necessarie to them that schulde synge. 1431 Rec. St. Mary at Hill 27.27 Also ij grete antyphaners Also iiij olde smale antyphaners. 1466 Inv. in Arch. (50) 46.8 Item iiij greate Antiffoners and ij small. 1479-1481 Rec. St. Mary at Hill 101.24 Item, payd to a Stacioner for the grete Antyphoner, and for a quayer of clene stuffe sette into the same. c1483 Cath. Angl. An anfenere; Antiphonarium. 1487-1488 Rec. St. Mary at Hill 133.19 Item, de- lyuerd to Alexaunder worsley, clarke, for to Ride to speke with Sir William Palmer ffor the Antiphoner that he hath to wryte.
Antiffoner [cf. antifener]; Antimne [cf. antefen]; Anti-phonar [cf. antifener]; Antiphone [cf. antefen]; Antiphoner, Antyfonere, Antyfyner [cf. antifener]; Antym, Antymph [cf. antefen]; Antyphaner, Anty-phonar, Antyphoner [cf. antifener]; Apistille [cf. epistle]
Are, sb. [a + re; cf. gamme], In the Guidonian system of hexachords, the musical tone a, which occurs only as re in the hexachordum durum (on G):
1307-1327 Uncom. in Cloys. 1.292 Of effauz and elami ne could y nevere are. c1450 Pow., Treat. Counter. 243.20 Are hathe 4 acordis: vt, mi, ffa, la be proprechaunt; vt at 10the, mi a 12the, ffa a 13the, la a 15the. c1450 Anon., Treat. Counter. 264.20,23 Yf pe plainsong haunt his course fro Gsolreut be-nethe down toward Are, conuenientli pan to se be-fore where he may close with 2°, or 3e, or 4e 3dis be-fore eypir in Ffaut benepe, or Dsolre, or Cfaut, or Are. c1450 Burl. 1.83 Every clarke that can rede and syng seythe that are gothe before bemy.
Armeny, Armonia [cf. armonie]
Armonical, adj. (also armonicall) [L. harmonicus; cf. armonie], Melodious, tuneful:
c1500 Hymnal 466.39 Owr voyce armonicall Resownyng owt, ymmortall god on live, En hansyng the with twnes musicall. 1512 Helyas 29.5 And in May whan the trees spryngeth and bring forthe theyr odiferaunte floures, and that the Birdes bring their armonical tunes on the smal grene twiges was made the entre of the noble quene Beatrice into the realme of Lile-fort.
Armonicall [cf. armonical]
Armonie, sb. (also armeny, armonia, armony, ermony, ermonye, hermonye) [L. harmonia],
I.The agreeable quality of musical tones, whether mingled, as in polyphony, or successive, as in monophony; harmony, music, melody: 1369 Ch., Duchess 312 For al my chambre gan to rynge Thurgh syngynge of her armonye. c1369 Ch., Romaunt R. 4247 Discordaunt ever fro armonye, And distoned from melodie, Con-trove he wolde, and foule fayle, With horne-pipes of Cornewaile. c1380 Ch., House F. 13 95 And, Lord! the hevenyssh melodye Of songes, ful of armonye, I herde aboute her trone ysonge. c1390 Cuck. and Night. 573.18 And the river that I sate upon, It made such a noise as it ron, Accordaunt with the birdes armony. c1400 Lyd., Churl and B. 105.73 It was a verrey hevenly melodye Evyn and morowe to here the briddes song And the swete sugred Armonye Of vncouth warbles and tewnes draw along. c1407 Lyd., Reson and Sens. 161 Whan briddes in ther Armonye Synge and maken melodye In the seson most benygne. 1412-1420 Lyd., Troy Bk. 2.3.5433 Certis to noon of pe mvsis alle, pat by accorde singen euer in on, Vp-on Pernaso, besiden Elycon, So angelik in her Armonye, pat tonge is noon pat may specefie pe grete swetnes of her goodly song. 1420-1422 Lyd., Siege of Th. 203 How this kyng, thys prudent Amphyoun, With the swetnesse and melodious soun And armonye, of his swetë song The Cytè bylt, that whilom was so strong. 1435 Mis., Fire of Love 12.23 In songe paï ryn of clene companys & lufly armonye c1445 Bok., Liv. of Sts. 156.1188 And wyth hyr bodyly eerys heuenely armonye Ther she herd. c1450 Flower and Leaf 365.131 For . . . the armony And sweet accord was in so good musyk, That the voice to angels most was lyk. c1485 Dig. Pl., Ch’s Bur. and Res. 223.1556 A songe of comforte lete vs expresse With notes of Armonye c1500 De Arte Lac. 285.46.4 The Angells with the heuynly hoste Their armony fro me gan hyde. c1500 Rich. Hill’s Com. Pl. Bk. 29.38.15 Angellis hevynly Made armonye And joyffull songe.
II.In technical or quasi-technical statements about music, the science of arranging, or the art of rendering, simultaneous musical tones: 1390-1393 Gow., Con. Aman. 7.165 The seconde of Mathematique, Which is the science of Musique, That techeth upon Armonie A man to make melodie Be vois and soun of instrument Thurgh notes of acordement. 1398 Trev., De Prop. Re. 19.131.941 Of Music ben three partyes. Armonica, Rethinica & Metrica ... And Armonia is swete accorde of songe: and cometh of due proporcyon in dyuerse voyces ... But in many voyces accordynge in one is proporcyon of Armony and melodye other swete Symphonia. Ibid. To make melodye of armony nedythe Diastema. Diesis. Tonus. Iperludius. Podorius. Arsis. Thesis & swete voys and temperate sowne. c1440 S. Kath. of Alex. (R) 38.383 Thei tawt her also pe scyens of musyk, ... sche had a mayster, per was none hym lyke, he departyd pis scyens in thre wyth-outen lye: In-to metyr, to ryme, & to armonye. Ibid. 40.384 Armonye is in voyse, in smytyng or wynde, Symphonye & euphonye arn of hys kynde.
III.A metaphysical force, said to be musical in essence, which pervades the natural order and acts to reconcile discordant elements within it; planetary or spherical harmony; harmony of the body or the soul:
c1382 Ch., Parliament F. 63 And after that the melodye herde he That cometh of thilke speres thryes thre, That welle is of musike and melodye In this world here, and cause of armonye. c1387 Usk. Test, of L. 2.9.40 This armony, this melody, this perdurable joye may nat be in doinge but betwene hevens and elementes, or twey kyndly hertes ful knit in trouth of naturel understanding, withouten weninge and disceit; as hevens and planettes, which thinges continually, for kyndly accordaunces, foryeteth al contrarious mevinges, that in-to passive diseses may sowne; evermore it thirsteth after more werking. 1398 Trev., De Prop. Re. 3.4.51 Pyctagoras callyth the soule Armony, acorde of melodye. Ibid. 19.131.941 And so veynes & synewes of the body and puls therof and so all the lymes of the body ben socied togyder by vertue of Armenye. Ibid. 19.145.947 Also reuolue and consydre her of in thy mynde, that Musyk & Armonye unyeth & accordyth dyuers thynges and contrary. Ibid. By a preuy & secrete lyknesse of propryte of the soule and of Armonye Melodye confourmyth itselfe to the affeccyons and desires of the soule. And ther-fore Auctoures meanyth that Instrumentes of Musyk makyth the gladde more gladde: and the sory more sory.
Armonious, adj. (harmonious) [cf. armonie], Harmonious:
1512 Helyas 32.1 Than after with all mirthe and sowne of trumpetes and other armonious instrumentes, the mighti king Oriant and the noble quene Beatrice his wife lay to gether.
Armony [cf. armonie]
Armonysen, vb. [cf. armonie], intr., To play or sing in accord:
* 1483 Caxton Gold. Leg. 255 b/2 The Thrones Songen, the domynacyons maden melodye, the pryncypates armonysed.
Arsis, sb. [L. < Gr. arsis a lifting up], An accented beat in music. (In Greek prosody the term was applied to the unaccented syllable of a poetic foot, so-called because the vocal pressure producing the syllable was considered to be light or “lifted up.” But in Roman and medieval prosody the word is used in the sense of “lifting up,” or accenting, the voice.):
1398 Trev., De. Prop. Re. 19.131.941 To make melodye of armony nedyth Diastema. Diesis. Tonus. Iperludius. Podorius. Arsis. Thesis. Ibid. Arsis is rerynge of voys and is the be-gynnyng of songe.
Ars metrik, sb. (also arsmetryk in other applications) [L. ars metrica], The art of measure, here applied to musical proportions:
1398 Trev., De Prop. Re. 19.144.947 The Sexqaltera proporcio in Ars metrik hyght Diapente & Diapason.
Art, sb. [OF. art], Applied to the art of music:
1369 Ch., Duchess 1161 Althogh I koude not make so wel Songes, ne knewe the art al, As koude Lamekes sone Tubal, That found out first the art of songe; For, as hys brothres hamers ronge Upon hys anvelt up and doun, Therof he took the firste soun, — But Grekes seyn Pic-tagoras, That he the first fynder was Of the art. 1398 Trev., De Prop. Re. 19.131.939 As arte of nombres & mesures seruyth to Diuinite so doth the arte of Melody.
Ascenden, vb. [OF. ascendre < L. ascendere], intr., To proceed from one tone to another of greater frequency:
c1425 Cutell, Treat. Disc. 700.20 And of alle imperfite accordes it is leueful to take iij, iiij, or 5 of a kynd and the pleynsong ascend or descend but neuer and it be in on lyn. c1450 Pow., Treat. Counter. 242.21 Also Pu maist ascende & descende with almaner of cordis excepte 2 a-cordis perfite of one kynde. c1450 Anon., Treat. Counter. 263.18 Also pe counterre may bope ascende and descende with one or 2° or 3e jmperfite a-cordis be-for a perfite corde as wel as pe descaunter.
Ascending, ppl. adj. [cf. ascenden]:
c1450 Anon., Treat. Counter. 263.3 Now it is conuenient to knou how pat pe counter shal be shape to serue pe plain-song bope ascending & descendyng.
Asinginge [cf. singing]
Aue [cf. ave]; Aue Marie [cf. Ave Maria]; Aungel songe [cf. angel song]
Ave, sb. (also aue) [L. avere “to be, or fare, well”], A shortened form for Ave Maria, q. v., or for any liturgical text beginning with the word Ave:
1230-1250 Anc. R. 16.17 Vnderuong mine gretunge mid ten ilke aue, & make me tellen lutel of euerich blisse vtewið. c1325 (c1460) Hereb., Rel. Poems 2.228 Thylk ave thai pow vonge in spel. 1350-1400 Arth. 294 Every man pat ys here Sey a Pater noster and ave wyp gode chere; Amen. 1350-1375 Erem. and Owt. 96.2 Thanne a pater nostyr loke thou say, And a aves evry day. 1370-1380 How the psalter 783.196 To suggen mi coustome, pine Aues euche daye. 1370-1400 Lay Folk. M. B. (B) 6.60 And pat hit so may be eke to pater and aue. c1450 Cov. Mys. prol. of Sum. 122.36 With Aue we be-gunne and Aue is oure conclus-yon Ave regina celorum to oure lady we synge.
Ave Maria, sb. (also Aue Maria) [L. Ave Maria “Hail, Mary”], A formula of devotion, often set to a plain-song, consisting of the angelic salutation of Gabriel (Ave Maria, gratia plena, Dominus tecum, etc., in Luke i.28 ff.) and a bidding prayer added by the Church (Sancta Maria, mater Dei, ora pro nobis peccatoribus nunc et in hora mortis nostrae):
c1230 Sawles Warde 42.408 Ðet e bidden ofte for me A pater noster ant aue marie. 1230-1250 Anc. R. 20.14 Ðe pe con oðer uhtsong, oðer ne mei hit siggen; uor uhtsong sigge Pritti pater nosteres, & aue maria efter euerich pater noster, & gloria patri efter euerich aue maria. 1350-1400 Wm. of Sh., Poems 117.74 Aue maria was pat soun Of gabrieles steuene. 1350-1370 Spec. Christ. 168.1 Grete the wyth auees fyue A pater noster and a crede. c1350 Eng. Met. Hom. 6.8 And cresten folk til sauel hel, That it be sua says inwardlye, Pater Noster Ave Marie. 1370-1380 Mayden Modur. 121.24 Ladi, here my song. Aue Maria. c1370 Ch., ABC 104 Ne advocat noon that wole and dar so preye For us, and that for litel hire as yee, That helpen for an Ave-Marie or tweye. c1380 Ef. of Ave M. 275.12 And te monek ech day Seyde ryt pre sypes Mid wel gode wille bope loude & stille pese aue maries. c1400 Mand., Trav. 211.1 And alle po that seyn for me a pater noster with an Aue Maria. c1430 Boke of Curt. 303.147 Sytthen py pater noster he wille pe teche, As cristes owne postles con preche; Aftur py Aue maria and pi crede, pat shalle pe saue at dome of drede. c1450 Mir, of our L. 374.9,11 But when aue maria was his lesson He myght lere no ferther be no reson But aue maria euer mor in his mende he kept.
- B -
Bace [cf. base]
Baggepipe, sb. (also bag-pipe, bagpype) [ON. baggi; LL. pipa, pipare to chirp], A wind instrument, so named from its bag-like wind reservoir which allows a constant stream of air, uninterrupted by the player’s breathing, to flow through the pipes. (A tune is played on one pipe, called the chanter, while each of the remaining pipes, or drones, sounds a continuous unchanging tone. In the British Isles the chanter characteristically had a double reed and each drone a single reed, the drone pipes being a later addition.):
c1387 Ch., GPCT. 565 A baggepipe wel koude he blowe and sowne. *c1430 Lydg., Min. Po. (Percy Soc.) 200 There is no bagpipe halff so talle, Nor no cormyse, for sothe as I ween, Whan they been ful of wynde at alle. c1460 Mac. pl., Wis. 59.727 (stage direction) Here entrethe vi Jorours, in a sute, gownyde, with hodis abowt her nekis, hattis of meyntenance Per-vp-on, vyseryde dyuersly; here mynstrell, a bag-pype. c1483 Cath. Angl. A Bagpype; panduca. *1484 Caxton Fables of Aesop Vi. vii, Whanne I pyped and played of my muse or bag pype ye dayned ne wold not daunse. c1498 Ass. of Gods 13.403 Whore berdyd Orpheus was there with hys harpe ... Othyr mynstrall had they none, safe Pan gan to carpe Of hys lewde bagpype, whyche causyd the company To lawe.
Baggepiper, sb. (also bagpyper) [cf. baggepype], A bagpiper:
c1440 Promp. Parv. (H) Baggepypere. Pandu-carius. c1483 Cath. Angl. A Bagpyper; panducarius.
Bagges, sb. (also baggys) [cf. baggepype], Bagpipes:
1370-1380 Disp. bytwene Bodi and Soule 340.51 This pipers that this bagges blewen . . . To elpen of the ther thu sette. c1425 Mac. Pl., Cast, of Per. 143.2199 Claryouns cryith up at a krake, & blowe our brodë baggys!
Baggys [cf. bagges]; Bag-pipe, Bagpype [cf. baggepipe]; Bagpyper [cf. baggepiper]; Balad [cf. balade]
Balade, sb. (also balad, balet, balette, ballad, ballat, ballette) [OF. balade ult. < Pr. balada a dancing song],
I.A subjective, non-narrative art-lyric, often set to music, consisting of one or more groups of three stanzas, each stanza with seven or eight lines, the last of which is a refrain. The musical setting has the form AAB, following the larger divisions of the text:
c1390 Ch., LGW. (G) 202 And songen, as it were in carole-wyse, This balade, which that I shal yow devyse. Ibid. 224 Whan that this balade al ysongen was, Upon the softe and sote grene gras They setten hem ful softely adoun. Ibid. 411 And many an ympne for your haly- dayes, That highten balades, roundeles, vire- layes. 1390-1393 Gow., Con. Aman. 1.2727 And also I have ofte assaied Rondeal, balade, and virelai. 1420-1450 Chas, of Orleans, Eng. Poems 764 Yowre sendynge which me gaf com-maundement A balad forto make. Ibid. 4654 And pray me that y wolde suche labour take Of ther complayntis as they to me tolde In a Roundelle or balade them to make. c1460 Ext. III. Cost. 2.27 Use no tavernys where be jestis and fablis, Syngyng of lewde balettes, rondelettes, or virolais.
II.Poetry having one or more of the characteristics of the balade:
c1400 pal. on Husb. 204.7 So sende he me sense and science Of my balade away to rade errour. 1413-1446 Hoc., Min. po. (1) 21.129.551 On swich mateere by god pat me made, Wolde I bestowe many a balade. c1426 Lyd., De Guil. Pilg. 2.23270 I wil myn ownë name shewë, sette out by lettars on a rowe at the gynnynge of this ditie, in eche ballad as ye may se. c1440 Guis, and Ghis. (A) 36.615 Prey all tho, theras thou comyst in audiens, To haue piete on thy symple translaciouns, Oute off prose by myne vnkonnyng directioune Made in balade. c1458 Knyght. and Bat. 53 Of knyghthode & Bataile, my lord, as trete The bookys olde . . .” What werk is it?” Vegetius translate Into Balade.
III.A simple, melodic lyric, usually designed for singing on a special occasion: c1483 Bal. 86.87 Balet: ... Sum what musyng, And more mornyng, In remembring The unstydfastnes, This world being Of such whelyng, Me contrarieng, [etc.]. *1492 in Michelet Scot. Lang. 218 For the singyn of a ballat to the King. 1499 Cov. Leet Bk. 118.8 And this balet was song at the Crosse: Ryall prince Arthur, Welcome newe tresur, With all our hole cur, to this your cite! [etc.]. *1500 Dunbar, Gold. Targe 129 And sang balletis with michty notis clere: Ladyes to dance full sobirly assayit.
IV.Balade royal = rhyme royal:
*1483 Caxton Cato 2 Ful craftly hath made it in balade ryal. *1494 Fabyan vii.406 I haue ther-fore set them out in baladde royal.
Baladen, vb. [LL. ballare; cf. balade], intr., To compose in balade form:
1420-1450 Chas. of Orleans, Eng. Poems 1440 To balade now y haue a fayre leysere Alle othir sport is me biraught as now Martir am y for loue and prisonere Allas allas and is this not y-now.
Balade royal [cf. balade, IV]; Balet, Balette, Ballad, Ballat, Ballette [cf. balade]; Bas [cf. base]
Base, sb. (bace) [OF. bas], The bass part:
c1450 When nettuls in wynter 67.7 Whan box ber papur in every lond and towne; And thystuls ber berys in every place; And pykes have naturally fethers in ther crowne; And bulles of the see syng a good bace.
Base, adj. and adv. (also bas, basse) [cf. base, sb.], In, or capable of, a low pitch or frequency:
c1450 Anon., Treat. Counter. 262.40 This same rwle may ye kepe be-twene Dsolre, Dlasolre, & al oper base keyys, whan pe countersight gop low. c1450 Merlin 572.32 And he seide in bas voice, “I am monevall.” 1485-1495 Partenay 945 In that place was had ful gret mynstracy; Both hye and bas instrumentes sondry. c1500 Leck. Prov. 478.18 A shawme makithe a swete sounde for he tunyth basse. 1509 (1517) Hawes, Past. Pleas. 1648 I saue a temple made of crystall In whiche musyke the lady excellent Played on base organs.
Base dance, sb. [cf. bas & daunce], = Basse dance (cf. daunce):
c1500 Lyr. in Angl. (1) 334.14.38 Musyke with all hur mynstralsye dyuerse base dances most swetly dyd pley ... & then Dame Musyke com-mandyd cur teslye my louely lady with me then to dance.
Basse [cf. base]; Beam [cf. beme]; Beaten [cf. beten]; Beeme [cf. beme]; Bel [cf. bell]
Bell, sb. (also bel, bole) [OE. belle], The medieval bell in various significations: a. A deep, conical bell, rung with a clapper, gradually developing from c1200 into the modern, large, tulip-shaped bell. b. A shallow, cup-shaped bell, rung originally from the outside with a hammer, in the 13th and 14th centuries appearing in sets of individual bells, called chimes, or cimbala, which could be tuned to various frequencies. c. Any modification or combination of these. d. Any small bell, such as the bells used in the Mass, hunting bells, ornamental bells, etc.:
A. A ceremonial or occasional instrument;
I.Christenings, or associated with the ceremony of christening:
c1325 Syr Degore 125.224 He bare the childe into the chapel, For joye of him he ronge the bel ... And christened the childe with great honour. 1338 Rob. Man. of Br., Rim. St. of Eng. 2.515.14856 Ne child cristned, ne belle rongen.
II.Funerals, funeral processions; also, occasions of formal or public mourning:
c1394 Ch., Pardoner 664 And as they sat, they herde a belle clynke Biforn a cors, was caried to his grave. c1400 Fl. of Rome 34.797 And how they broght hym to the towne, Wythowten belle or procescoun, Hyt was a drery syght. 1408 E. E. Wills 15.12 That ys for to sayn, with Belle Ryngyng, deryge be note, & Masse of requiem be note. c1420 Amadas 3.254.273 At morne when the dey began to spryng, All the belles of that cety he gard to ryng That soole for to plese. c1425 St. Mary of Oeg. 182.2 For whan sche come to vs, pe belles were rungen for pe liche: and pen she was present while pe body was wasshen and buryed. 1431-1438 Lyd., Fall of Pr. 1.2.3930 Epitaphie ther was non rad nor sunge Be no poete with ther poetries, Nor off his tryumphes ther was no belle runge. c1460 Town. Pl., Purif. of Mary 184.104 A, dere god! what may this be? Oure bellys ryng so solemply, ffor whom soeuer it is.
1250-1260 K. Horn (C) 1016 Or eny day was sprunge Oper belle irunge Ðe word bigan to springe Of Rymenhilde weddinge. Ibid. 1253 Hi Runge pe belle Ðe wedlak for to felle.
IV.Other religious and devotional ceremonies: processions, installations, special feasts and services:
1121-1154 Anglo Sax. Chron. 381(Bodl. Laud 636)2 Brohten him into cyrce mid processionem sungen Te Deum laudamus, ringden pa, belle setten him on Pes abbotes settle. 1303 Rob. Man. of Br., Hand. Syn. 159.4771 As Dauyd seyp yn pe sautere, ‘yn harpe, yn thabour, and symphan gle, wurschepe God, yn troumpes, and sautre, yn cordys, and organes, and bellys ryngyng, yn al pese, wurschepe e heuene kyng. 1350-1400 St. Erk. 352 Ðai passyd forthe in procession, & alle pe pepulle followid, And alle pe belles in pe burghe beryd at ones. 1400-1425 North. Pass. (A) 158.359 Made thane a grete processioune and Bellis did he Many to rynge. c1400 Curs. M. (BM) 5.595 Goth with faire processioun To ierusalem Porwe pe toun. Dop pe belles alle to ryngen, And loke pat e mury syngen. c1400 Apol. for Loll. Doctr. 19.30 Ðat pe kirk performe it solemply, candel slekennid, bell rongun, and pe cros turnid vp so doun. c1400 Mirk, Fest. 150.27 Wherfor yn processyon bellys rungype, baners ben borne befor, pe crosse comyp aftyr, and all pe pepull suyth. c1445 Bok., Liv. of Sts. 29.908 Te deum laudamus devouthly sunge And alle here bellys ful solemnely runge. c1450 Love., Merl. 1.7410 So that Arthewr jn his armes pere gan he brase aforn al the people Jn that plase, and Te deum lavdamus he gan to Synge, Therto alle the bellys anon gonnen rynge.
V.An instrument rung as a sign of public rejoicing, especially in celebration of a victory, or in honor of royalty, as at coronations, births, receptions, and processions:
1205-1225 Lay., B. (A) 2.606.18 Ðeo biscopes gunnen singe: biuoren pa leod-kinge. bemen per bleowen: bellen per ringede. 1285-1295 St. Thom. 159.1851 Of bellene and of tabours so gret was pe soun, Of eche manere gleo and of song po he cam into toun, pat man ne mite i-heore non opur Ping. 1350-1400 Egl. of Art. 765 Wyth procescions hym comyng ageyn, They dydd the bellus to rynge. c1350 Parl. of Thre Ages 214 And than the hawteste in haste hyghes to the towre, With theire bellys so brighte blethely thay ryngen. 1390-1410 Vis. of Tund. 64.2013 Symbals of syluer and flowredelyce With bellys of gold that mery rong. 1400- Beu. of Ham. (C) 2545 When they of the cyte saw Beuys Come wyth the dragons hede, I-wys, All the bellys gan they rynge. 1400- Guy of War. (C) 234.4088 Into pe cite pai gun it bring, For ioie pai gun pe belles ring. 1400- Dem. Joy 2.74 Demaunde. What people be they that never go a processyon? R. They be those that rynge the belles in the meane season. c1450 Brut (D) 2.448.14 And a-none ae pe belles in London were rengon; ‘Te Deum’ was songone at Paules [Birth of Henry VI]. Ibid. (H) 2.558.26 And al pe belles ronge agaynes hym [Henry V]. 1502-1503 Rec. St. Mary at Hill 247.9 Payd for ryngyng of oure bellys whan the kyng came from baynardes caste to powel-les. 1508-1509 Ibid. 266.16 Item, payd to seuyn men that Rong the bellis when the kynges grace whent to Westmyster to be crownnyd.
B. A signalling instrument:
I.An instrument rung to mark the hours of the breviary or to call the religious to special duties and services:
1300- K. Rich. 2.221 And whene the belle began to ryng, The preest scholde make the sakeryng. 1370-1380 How to Hear 508.567 Bi-twene pe sanctus and pe sakeryng Til pat pe belle knelle. 1400- Rewl. of Sust. At pe mete & at pe soper in alle times pey schal sowne pe smale belle, c1400 Rule of St. Ben. (Met.) 88.1473 The Priores, & oper nane, Aw for to ches a seger-stane To ring pe bels in right aray Til al per seruys nyght & day. Ibid. 97.1759 Als son als pai here pe beles To mes, matyns, or oght els, Ðan sal pai hast pam on al wise Sone to come to godes seruyse. c1450 Anton. 125.37 And wen pai had dronkyng thryse, pe prior rong pe belle.
II.An instrument rung as a summons to church or as a signal for the beginning or end of the Mass: 1205-1225 Lay., B. (A) 2.180.5 No bell i-rungen: no masse isunge. 1250-1300 Dux Mor. 30.186.178 A! now I here A belle ryngant ful nere endyr in pe kyrk. c1300 Sir Tris. 203.12.7 The belles con thai ring, And masses con thai seye. 1303 Rob. Man. of Br., Hand. Syn. 144.4255 Whan he heryp a bel ryng, To holy cherchë men kallyng. 1430-1440 Six Things 1.304.11,12 Qwykly ryse pane of thi bede at pe belle ryngynge, if pou may it here; and if na kirke be pare pou duellis, pe Cokk be thi belle; if per be nowthir cokk ne belle, goddes lufe pane wakkene the. c1440 Jac. Well 61.24 Ðe ryngyng of bellys ... clepyn in pe peple to dyuyne servise. c1450 Eng. Reg. 1.20 Alle lordes pat maketh her prestes to synge her messe in churchis enterdited, and with bellis ryngyng clepith folke to messis. al46l Sir Degr. 637 Tyll pe day wex clere, vndurne and mare; Whyle pat hurde pei a bell Ryng in a chapell; To chyrche pe gay dammisel Buskede hyr are. 1470-1485 Mai., Launc. and Guin. 1254.4 And atte last he was ware of an ermytage and a chapel stode betwyxt two clyffes and than he harde a lytel belle rynge to masse. 1512 Helyas 127.3 Than after the masse were the belles solempnely rongen and Te Deum songe for joye in thanking God of his devine vertues.
III.An instrument used for civic communication: rung to clock the time, to summon to civic functions, such as the assizes, gild meetings, etc., or to relay warnings and alarms; also, in compound forms, as noun belle, vndernbelle, etc.: c1300 Beu. of Ham. (A) 2250 And so stod Beues in pat pring, Til noun belle be-gan to ring. 1369 Ch., Duchess 1322 Ryght thus me mette, as I yow telle, That in the castell ther was a belle, As hyt hadde smyten houres twelve. 1389 Eng. Gilds (1) 121.6 Ðis is pe ordenaunce of pe ylde: pt the alderman and pe bedel, bretheryn and sisteryn of pe gilde, schullyn comyn, at pe secunde belle of the Euesong of seint Peter. c1394 Ch., Pardoner 662 Longe erst er prime rong of any belle. 1400- Athelston 78.351 And whenne pey runggen vndernbelle, He rod in Lon-done, as I ow telle. 1400-1450 Torr. of Port. 810 Tho the belles be-gan to Ryng, Vpe Rose that Ryche kyng. c1450 Cov. Mys., Proc. 16.526 At vj of pe belle we gynne oure play In N. town wherfore we pray That god now be oure Spede. c1450 Gesta Rom. 17.7.4 And ech man pat hadde eny cause pat shuld be shewid, sholde ryng pilke belle, And pe Iuge shold come to sitte in his seruise, with oute delay. c1450 Love., Merl. 1.6425 So that on the morwen, jn that place, at evensong tyme of the belle. al46l Sir Degr. 1472 With an orrelegge on hyth, To rynge pe ours at nyth, To waken Myldore . . . With bellus to knylle. c1470 Greg., Chron. 159.15 And by-twyne ix and x of the belle per come certayne men of the Byschoppys of Wyn-chester. 1480-1481 Wat. Arch. 315.9 All the counsaille of the saide citie then being and res-tyng within the same shall appere personally att the knollyng of the bell in the chappell of Jesus beside the Trinite chirche.
IV.An instrument occasionally said to be used for military signalling:
c1400 K. Alis. 115.2020 Ðine hornes blowe and belles rynge ... And lete armen pine Affri-canes. Ibid. 191.3387 Now, sire, quyk and snel, Do ringen alle pine bellis.
V.In falconry, small bells, or sets of bells, attached to, the jesses of the hawk, which serve to signal its location:
1422-1461 Booke of Hawk. 1.299.19 Then ordeyn his gesses redy and his bell. al450 Lyd., Min. Po.2, Isop. Fab. 573.192 The gentyll faucon with gesse & ryche belles To cache hys pray lyke to hys desyres. *1466 Howard Acc. in Manners & Household Ex. Engl. 382 Item, the same day my mastyr paid for ij hawkes belles, v. d. c1500 When men motyth 299.6,7 But when she wold not to my glove resorte: I pullyd of her bellys, and let her flye. Bought I my sparhauke bellys of Mylayne, Wele gessyd and lownyd with sylke and with twyne.
C. Bells said to be rung by miraculous power, as by the Deity or a deity, or possessed of the magical power to repel demons and devils: *1300 St. Greg. 188.1253 Ðe bellen alle aen hym ronge wip oute draut of any mon. 1350-1400 Sege. of Mel. 17.514 And alle pe bellis pat in pat abbaye was Range allone thorowe goddis grace, Whils it was pryme of pe day. c1385 Ch., Troilus 3.189 Withouten hond, me semeth that in towne, For this merveille, ich here ech belle sowne. 1387 Trev., Poly. 6.203.15 And he went so i-gyved to Rome, and me seip pat pe belles of pe citee gonne to rynge by hem self in his comynge. c1400 Fl. of Rome 380.1894 When that sche came nere the place, The bellys range thorow godys grace. c1420 Vita St. Eth. Elien. 301.824 And also bellus rongon & maden gret noy With-out ony touchyng of monnus hond. c1430 Ches. Pl., Sal. and Nat. 1.114.5 But when that anye lande withe battill Was readye Rome for to assaile, The godes I meane with-outen fayle Of that lande range his belle. c1430 Cheu. Ass. 272 Alle pe bellys of pe close rongen at ones Withe-oute ony mannes helpe whyle pe fyte lasted. 1450-1500 Stanz. Life of Chr. 17.510 The image of pat lond in hy rong his belle with-oute faile And turnet his bak ful deignously to god of Rom, hom to auaile. c1460 Town. Pl., Purif. of Mary 185.114 Now we were I and it so were, ffor sich noyse hard I neuer ere; Oure bellys ryng by thare oone!
D. Ornamental bells: jingles added to bridles, harnesses and saddles; amulets worn on clothing: 1300- K. Rich. 2.60.1517 His trappys wer off tuely sylke, With five hundred belles ryngande. c1394 Ch., Nun’s Priest 3984 For sikerly, nere clynkyng of youre belles, That on youre bridel hange on every syde, By hevene kyng, that for us alle dyde, I sholde er this han fallen doun for sleep. c1400 Mand., Trav. 160.35 And also whan the Emperour sendeth his Cor-rours hastyly, porghout his lond, euerych of hem hath a large thong fue of smale belles. c1400 K. Alis. 12.177 A mule also whyte so mylk ... Myd many belle of syluer shene Y-fastned on orfreys of mounde Ðat hengen doune to grounde. c1400 Ches., Laun. 1.211.952 Her sadell was semyly sett, The sambus wer grene felvet, Ipaynted with ymagerye, The bordure was of belles, Of ryche gold and no-thyng elles, c1426 Lyd., De Guil. Pilg. 1.6596 Vpon the samë gyrdle stronge, Off syluer, smalë bellys honge, Twelue in noumbre, & no mo.
Bell claper, sb. (also -clapper, -clappyr, -clapur, -clapyr) [bell + claper < ME. clappen; OE. clæppan; cf. bell], The part of a bell assembly which is in motion during a clocking action or, in a ringing or chiming action, the part that is struck by the moving bell; the tongue of a bell; also, as claper, clapyr, etc.:
1390-1393 Gow., Con. Aman. 4.347 Thei wexen doumb and dar noght telle, Withoute soun as doth the belle, Which hath no claper forto chyme. c1426 Lyd., De Guil. Pilg. To wych, in Tookne off Vnyte, A claper serueth in chym-yng, Wych declareth in sownyng, “Ther ys but o god, & no mo.” c1450 Turn. of Tot. 3.95.268 And bell clapurs in blawndisare, With a noble cury, Ffor tho that ete no fish. 1479-1481 Rec. St. Mary at Hill 101.7 Item, for a boky to hange pe clappyr of the lyty belle.
Bell clapper, Bell clappyr, Bell clapur, Bell clapyr [cf. bell claper]
Belledræm, sb. [cf. bell & drem], The musical sound of a bell:
c1200 Orm., Ormu. 1.922 Ðe belledræm bitacnepp uw.
Belle ryngyng, ger. (also belryngyng) [cf. bell & ringen], Bell-ringing:
1350-1400 Wm. of Sh., Poems 7.18 Al hit bep cherche sacremens . . . As hali water, and haly bred, Lit, and belryngynges. 1408 E. E. Wills 15.12 Wyth Belle Ryngyng ... & Masse of requiem.
Bell kylling, ger. [cf. bell & knellen], The ringing or tolling of bells:
A1450 Mirk, Inst, for Par. Pr. 21.680 Thou shall pronounce this idous thing, With crosse & candell and bell knylling.
Bellman, sb. (also belman) [bel + OE. man], One employed in any capacity requiring the ringing of a bell; a towncrier, a time-keeper, etc.; also, one whose duty it is to announce deaths, or, at specified times, to solicit prayers for the souls of the dead.
1389 Eng. Gilds (1) 31.31 Ye comoun belle-man schal gon thurghe ye cite on ye gilde day ... and seyn yat a messe of Requiem schal ben seyd erly on ye morwen. *1391 Test. Ebor. (1836) I.163 Le belman portand campanam per villam . . ijd. 1463 Bury W. 17.22 I. I wele the ij bellemen have ij gownys. Ibid. 28.8 Itm. I wil that the belle meen have iiijd. to go yeerly abowte the town at my yeerday for my soule.
Bellowes [cf. bellows]
Bellows, sb. (also bellewes, belwes) [OE. belg, bælg bag, bellows], A valved air-chamber, consisting of flexible walls of folded skin or ribbed wood, used for compressing air and thus forcing it into the wind channels of an organ:
1398 Trev., De Prop. Re. 19.131.942 Organum is a generall name of all Instrumentes of Musyk: and is nethelesse specyally appropryte to the instrument that is made of many pypes: and blowe wyth bellowes. 1500-1501 Rec. St. Mary at Hill 240.15 Item, to Iohn how, organmaker, for mendyng & makyng of new bellows for the organs.
Belryngyng [cf. belleryngyng]; Belwes [cf. bellows]; Bem [cf. berne]
Bemare, sb. [OE. bymere < beme trumpet; cf. beme], A trumpeter:
1230-1250 Anc. R. 92.31 Ðe prude beoð his bemares draweð wind inward; of wordlich here-word & eft, mid idel elpe, puffeð hit utward ase pe bemare deð. Ibid. 94.2 Ðer no prud bemare ne mei beon iboruwen.
Beme, sb. (also beam, beeme, bem, bemm, beom) [OE. beme trumpet], A straight trumpet. (Medieval vocabularies equate L. buccina, a curved Roman trumpet, with the English beme. But it seems clear that from c1000 to c1400 the characteristic medieval trumpet was of a straight rather than a curved design, thus more closely resembling the Roman tuba, a straight war trumpet. After 1400, the folded S-design became common in England, and it is likely that the term beme was applied to this species as well, although the frequency of the term diminishes in the 15th century. Cf. Apel, 100; Grove, IV, Plate 32, no. 8; Ibid. VIII, 564-565; Sachs, 280-281):
I.A military instrument used chiefly for signalling purposes or for providing battle fanfare, occasionally said to be blown during military rituals and ceremonies; rarely used for purposes of musical entertainment:
1205-1225 Lay., B. (A) 1.217.23 Bemen per bleowen: blisse wes on folke. Ibid. 2.201.14 Bemen per bleowen: blisse wes on hirede. forð mon brohte pat water: bi-foren pan wun kinge. Ibid. 3.93.23 Ða gon pat folc sturien: pa eoðen gon to dunien. bemen per bleowen: bonneden ferden. homes per aqueðen: mid hæhere stef-nen. sixti pusede: bleowen to-somne. c1300 Beu. of Ham. (A) 3793 Ðe trompes gonne here bemes blowe. 1325-1350 Lyb. Disc. 2.64.1497 And yf he beryth the doun, Hys trompys schull be boun, Har bemes for to blowe. 1338 Rob. Man. of Br., Rim. St. of Eng. 1.362.10355 Ðan did Arthur bemes blowe, . . . pat men myght knowe Ðat he wolde pennes turne. c1350 Will. of Pal. 1154 Ðanne busked pei here batayles on pe best wise, & whanne pe renkes were arayed redly as pei wold, bugles & bemes men gun blowe fast, & alle maner menstracie pere was mad panne. c1380 Ch., House F. 1240 Of hem that maken blody soun In trumpe, beme, and claryoun; For in fight and blod-shedynge Ys used gladly clarionynge. 1400- Wars of Alex. (A) 152.2616 Blew bemys of bras buskis to-gedire, Ðe crie of pe clarions pe cloudis it persyd. c1450 Song of Rol. 53 When he had said they herd hym blif; blowinge off bugles and bemes aloft, trymlinge of tabers And tymbring soft, bridlinge of stedes and baners vp to fold.
II.An instrument mentioned in religious contexts, often with allusion to doomsday or the trumpet of doom:
1100- Ear. Eng. Hom. 71.26 Ðrihten asænt his ængles mid bemen & mid mycelre stæmne, & heo gaderigeð his gecorene fram feower winden. 1205-1225 Lay., B. (A) 2.606.17 & pe heo gun-nen leden: pe king to chirechen. peo biscopes gunnen Singe: biuoren pa leod-kinge. bemen per bleowen. 1230-1250 Anc. R. 93.35 Auh if heo wel pouhten of godes bemares & of pe en-glene bemen of heouene pet schulen a uourhalue pe worlde biuoren pe grurefule dome grisliche bloawen ariseð deade ariseð. c1275 Dooms. 162.18 Ðe engles in pe dai-red bleweð heore beme. 1300- Curs. M. (E) 5.22711 Ðan sal be herd pe blast of bem, pe demster sal come to dem. c1440 Yk. Pl., Judg. Day 499.63 Therfore myne aungellis will I sende To blawe per bemys, pat all may here The tyme is comen I will make ende. c1460 Town. Pl., Proph. 62.199 At hys commyng sha bemys blaw, That men may his commyng knaw; ffu sorrowfu shall be that blast.
III.Applied to the blast of the trumpet:
c1458 Knyght. and Bat. 2840 The beemys, vp thei goth out of the trump.
Bemen, vb. (also bemyn) [cf. beme], intr., To make a loud noise, as with a trumpet:
1230-1250 Anc. R. 195.33 And e don also ase e wulleð pet ower beoden bemen & dreamen wel; ine drihtenes earen. *c1450 Gaw. & Gologras iii.8 The folk .. That bemyt war be the lord.
Bemene, adj. [cf. beme], Trumpet-like:
c1200 In Asc. Dom. 2.115.14 And pe bemene drem pe pe engles blewen. pe pere comen bi-foren ure helende to heuene gaten.
Bemi, sb. (also be-my) [be + mi; cf. gamme], In the Guidonian system of hexachords, the musical tones B, b, and b1, which occur only as mi in the hexa-chordum durum (on G):
c1450 pow., Treat. Counter. 243.9 Bemi hath 2 a-cordis re, sol be proprechaunt; re a 10, sol a 13. Ibid. 246.18 Bemi hape 3 a-cordis: vt, mi, sol be quarre; vt a 6, mi a 8, sol a 10. c1450 Burl. 1.83 Every clarke .. . seythe that are gothe before bemy.
Bemm [cf. beme]
Bemol, sb. (also be mole, molle) [OF. bemol; ML. B mollis, lit., “B soft”], A note, now B-flat, introduced into the “F” hexachord of Guido in order to avoid the awkward interval of a tritone, which lies between B and F, but which is changed when replaced by B-flat:
1307-1327 Uncom. in Cloys. 1.292 Thu holdest nowt a note ... in riht ton ... Thu bitist a-sonder bequarre. for bemol i the blame. Ibid. Of bemol and of bequarre of bothe i was wol bare. 1387 Trev., Poly. 1.355.12 Ðey makep wel mery armonye and melody wip wel picke tunes, werbeles, and nootes; and bygynnep from bemol, and pleiep priueliche vnder deepe soun of pe grete strenges. c1450 Pow., Treat. Counter. 245.3 Ffaut hathe 4 acordis re, ffa, sol be quarre, & ffa be proprechaunt in Ffaut aboue, & mi, sol la be molle, be pe same acordis pat re, ffa, sol be. Ibid. 245.9 Gsol-reut hape 4 acordis: mi, sol, la be quarre & sol be proprechaunt in Gsolreut aboue, & ffa, la, be molle pe same a-cordis pat mi sol be. c1504 Corn., Tr. and Enf. 471.16 I kepe be rounde and he be square The one is be mole and the other be quarre.
Be mole [cf. bemol]; Bemy [cf. bemi]; Bemyn [cf. be- men]
Bendynge, ger. [OE. bendan], Deflection, modulation:
1398 Trev., De Prop. Re. 19.131.941 Songe is the bendynge of the voys.
Benethe, adj., adv., prep. [OE. beneopan], Beneath, in pitch or position:
c1425 Cutell, Treat. Disc. 701.2 Neuerthe-lesse the sighte of discant is sum-tyme beneth the playne song and sum-tyme a-bown & sum-tyme with the playne songe. c1450 Pow., Treat. Counter. 242.50 He most ymagyne his vnisoun pe 8te note fro pe playnsong benepe, his 3de the 6te note benepe. c1450 Anon., Treat. Counter. 262.31,32 & pan ymagyn Csolfaut your 12e, pe 2e benepe in sight your 13e, pe 4e benepe your 15e.
Benicun [cf. benisoun]
Benisoun, sb. (also benesoun, benicun, benyssoun) [OF. beneicon; L. benedictionem], = Benediction: a short, non-liturgical hymn service, added to complin or vespers, and consisting of (1) a hymn or hymns (Tantum ergo, O salutaris hostia), (2) prayers, and (3) a blessing which the priest gives by elevating a monstrance or ciborium containing the Blessed Sacrament and making with it the sign of the cross:
1338 Rob. Man. of Br., Rim. St. of Eng. 1.268.7619 Of prest was per no benisoun, Ne messe songen, ne orysoun. c1350 Rolle, Pricke of Con. 3405 General shrifte, pat ilk day may be, Benyssoun of bisshope of his dignité. 1387 Trev., Poly. 7.373.9 Whan he rood on his hors he wolde seie his psawter and benesouns pat Englisshe men makep over pe coppe. 1400- Rewl. of Sust. 105.19 The absolucions schullin be seyde in pe tune of chapitres, pe benisons in pe tune of lessons. c1400 Rule of St. Ben. (Pr.) 18.26 Cumplin sal be saide wid pre salmis wid-vten antefens, & sip in pe ymne pat fallis parto, A lescun, and te verset, & sipin “Kyryeleison,” and te benicun.
Benyssoun [cf. benisoun]; Beom [cf. beme]
Bequarre, sb. (also be quarre, be square) [OF. béquarre < L. B quadratum, lit., “B square”], A note, now B-natural, so named from its square shape as contrasted with the round shape of the medieval symbol denoting B-flat (cf. bemol, be rounde): in the Guidonian system of hexachords, the hexachordum durum, on G.:
1307-1327 Uncom. in Cloys. 1.292 Thu holdest nowt a note ... in riht ton ... Thu bitist a-sonder bequarre, for bemol i the blame. cl450 Pow., Treat. Counter. 244.11 Elami hape 4 acordis: vt, mi, ffa, la be quarre. Ibid. 245.8 Gsolreut hape 4 acordis: mi, sol, la, be quarre & sol be proprechaunt in Gsolreut aboue. c1504 Corn., Tr. and Enf. 471.15 The one is be mole and the other be quarre yf I myght make tryall as I couthe and dare I shuld shew why these jj kyndes do varry.
Beren, vb.1 [OE. beran], trans., To sustain a part in singing:
c1387 Ch., GPCT. 673 This Somonour bar to hym a stif burdoun. c1504 Corn., Tr. and Enf. 470.18 Enformacõn is so curious in his chaun-tynge That to bere the true playne songe it is not possible.
Beren, vb.2 [OE. iberen], intr., To sound, as of a bell:
1400- Erk. 274.352 Ðai passyd forthe in pro-cessione, & alle pe pepulle folowid, And alle pe bellis in pe burghe beryd at ones. 1430-1440 Tom. of Ers. (T) 2.31 Ðe wodewale beryde als a bee.
Be rounde, sb. [B + OF. roond; L. rotundus], = Bemol, q. v.: the note B-flat, so named from its round shape as contrasted with bequarre, q. v.:
c1504 Corn., Tr. and Enf. 471.15 I kepe be rounde and he be square The one is be mole and the other be quarre.
Be square [cf. bequarre]
Bete, sb. [cf. beten], The action, or sound, of beating, as on a drum:
1303 Rob. Man. of Br., Hand. Syn. 283.8992 Or entyrludës, or syngynge, Or tabure bete, or oper pypynge, Alle swychë pyng forbodyn es. 1370-1380 Disp. bytwene Bodi and Soule 340.50 Wher be theose gleomen the to glewen, Harpe and fithele and tabour bete.
Beten, vb. (also beaten, betyn) [OE. beaten],
I.trans., To beat a drum or drum-like instrument: 1303 Rob. Man. of Br., Hand. Syn. 228.7128 For y do pan ryt as pe bras, And as pe tympan, pat bete was. c1377 Fer. 3895 By pat he hauede yblowe a blaste, On pe toun pay bute tabours faste, & made noyse horryble. 1398 Trev., De Prop. Re. 19.136.944 The Symphonye is an Instrument of Musyk ... And mynstralles betyth it wyth styckes. Ibid. 19.138.944 Tympanum is layed streyghte to the tree in the one syde and half a Tabour other halfe a Symphony ... and beten wyth a stycke ryght as a tabour. c1450 Love., Merl. 2.14551 Anon kyng Soni-granx jn that plas his trompes let Blowen, his tymbers let bete here mene there forto gaderen to hepe. Ibid. 3.20235 Here tabours and tymbres beten they faste
II.intr., Of a musical instrument: to sound continuously at inconstant pitch:
1300- Rich. 5705 Tabours beten, and trumpes blowe. 1330-1340 Arth. and Merl. 8803 Tho bigan knites rideing, Trumpes beten, tabours dassing.
Betyng, ger. [cf. beten]:
c1400 K. Alis. 123.2159 Now rist grete tabour-betyng. 1422-1461 Booke of Hawk. 1.299 When he seith the hauke comyng lete hym bete the tabre and then with the betyng lete him that hath the malard kast her up.
B fa mi, sb. [B + fa + + mi; cf. bequarre & be rounde], The musical tone b which, as fa in the F-hexachord, is flat, and, as mi in the G-hexachord, is natural:
c1450 Pow., Treat. Counter. 245.18 fa mi hape 3 acordis; re, ffa, sol be proprechaunt; re a 10, ffa a 12e, sol a 13.
Blæst [cf. blast]; Blæwen [cf. blowen]
Blake, sb. [OE. blæc], Black, designating the color of a musical note:
c1504 Corn., Tr. and Enf. 469.27 In musike I haue lernyd iiij colours as this blak full blaake wide and in likewyse reede.
Blakefull, sb. (also full blaake) [OE. blæc + full], Applied to the color of a note which is normally white but which has been temporarily blackened to indicate that the normal rhythmic value is to be diminished by one-third, i.e., made into a triplet.
c1500 Leck. Prov. 479.23 Musyke hathe her coloures of dyuersites Blake voyde, blakefull, alteraciones of curiosite.
Blake voyde, sb. [OE. blæc + OF. voide], Applied to the color of a note which is normally black but which has been made white temporarily to indicate that the normal rhythmic value is to be diminished by one third, i. e., made into a triplet: c1500 Leck. Prov. 479.23 Musyke hathe her coloures of dyuersites Blake voyde, blakefull, alteraciones of curiosite.
Blas [cf. blast]
Blasen, vb. (also blasten) [OE. sb. blæst], intr., To blow on a wind musical instrument:
c1380 Ch., House F. 1802 And with his blake clarioun He gan to blasen out a soun As lowde as beloweth wynd in helle. Ibid. 1866 And tok his blake trumpe faste, And gan to puffen and to blaste.
Blast, sb. (also blæst, blas) [OE. blæst], The action of blowing into a trumpet, or other wind instrument; also, the sound resulting:
1205-1225 Lay., B. (A) 2.412.21 Muchel wes pa blisse: pa Arður com to burhe. pa wes bemene blæst. c1250 Gen. and Exod. 98.3464 And dinede an migtful hornes blast. c1275 Best. 21.665 Ðanne remen he alle a rem, so hornes blast oðer belles drem. c1300 Beu. of Ham. (A) 774 And tide his hors to an hei porn And blew a blast wip is horn. c1350 Eng. Met. Hom. 19.25 Quen we sal ris thoru blast of bem And Crist sal cum al folc to dem. c1350 Rolle, Pricke of Con. 4977 Whan pai here pe dredeful blast Of pe beme, pat pan sal blaw last. 1398 Trev., De Prop. Re. 19.131.941 And Armonia is swete accorde of songe: and cometh of due proporcyon in dyuerse voyces other blastes towchynge and smytynge sownes. 1400- St. Edm. and Frem. 412.881 Sekyng the forest and the valys rounde With blaste of hornys, with rachchis & with houndys. 1400-1450 Torr. of Port. 146 Hys hornys blast a-woke hyme nowght, He swellyd ase dothe the see. c1400 Laud Tr. Bk. 5185 In his horn blew he a blaste, His men assemblent aboute him faste. c1400 K. Alis. 145.2567 Mery is pe blast of pe styuoure; Mery is pe touchyng of pe harpoure. c1420 Brut (C) 2.421.31 He passid yn withoute pryde; withoute pype or bomys blaste. c1426 Lyd., De Guil. Pilg. 2.14307 Thys ffloutys ek, with sotyl musys, And thys shallys loudë crye, And al swych other menstralcye, With ther blastys off bobbaunce, Don offtë tymë gret grevaunce. 1438 (1580) Scot. Alex. Buik 4.382.11 Sic blasts of trumpetis heir and thare, And of woundit sic crying. 1450-1500 Gol. and Gaw. 154.592 Blew ane blast of ane horne, As wes the maner beforne.
Blasten [cf. blasen]; Blawen [cf. blowen]; Blawend [cf. blowend]; Blaweyng, Blawing, Blawyng [cf. blowing]; Bleowen [cf. blowen]; Blepeliche, Blethely [cf. blithely]
Blithe, adv. (also blythe, blyve) [OE. bliðe], Joyfully, merrily:
1230-1250 Anc. R. 160.15 Ðeos muwe bliðe singen. c1369 Ch., Romaunt R. 79 Than doth the nyghtyngale hir myght To make noyse and syngen blythe. c1445 Bok., Liv. of Sts. 6456 The voys of orgons & of dyuers menstralcy So swyftly pe eyr dede furth dryve That to katerynys eerys pe sounde cam blyue.
Blithely, adv. (also blepeliche, blethely) [OE. bliðe + ly, lice], Joyfully:
c1350 Parl. of Thre Ages 214 With theire bellys so brighte blethely thay ryngen. c1350 Will. of Pal. 819 Eche busch ful of briddes pat blepeliche song.
Bloawen [cf. blowen]; Blowand [cf. blowend]
Blowen, vb. (also blæwen, blawen, bleowen, bloawen) [OE. blawen], To blow (in various musical senses):
I.To blow or play any wind musical instrument:
1205-1225 Lay., B. (A) 2.353.11 Ða pe mæsse wes isunge; to halle heo prungen. beme heo bleowen: bordes heo brædden. 1250-1260 K. Horn (C) 1371 Horn gan his horn to blowe. 1325-1350 Lyb. Disc. 2.45.1045 Hys bugle he gan to blowe, For hys folk hyt schuld knowe In what stede he wer. 1370-1380 Disp. bytwene Bodi and Soule 340.51 This pipers that this bagges blewen ... To elpen of the ther thu seete. c1380 Ch., House F. 1680 And out hys trumpe of gold he brayde ... And blew it est, and west and south. c1387 Ch., GPCT. 565 A baggepipe wel koude he blowe and sowne. 1400- Bat. of Hal. H. 288.16 This was do with mery sowne, wip pipes, Trompes, & nakers per-to; And loude clariounes pei Blew also. 1400- Ant. of Arth. 13.5 The kynge his bugul con blau, opon the bent bides. c1400 Brut (A) 1.285.10 And pe Englisshe mynstralles blow her trompis and hir pipes. 1400-1425 Rep. of Fr. Daw Thop. 2.51.9 Jak, in the Apocalypse ful pertli e be peintid, whan the seven angels blowun there seven trompis, to warne Anticris-tis meyne of our Lordes comyng. 1431-1438 Fall of Pr. 1.2.1653 His preestis gan ther trumpes for to blowe. 1474 Rec. of Hist. of Tr. 1.265.31 And tolde hym that some were there for to gete the paas and that the geant had blowen the horn. c-1485 Lyf Ch. Grete 233.24 Wherfore anone he sowned and blew his horne of yuorye moche lowde.
II.To sound a particular note; to play a tune; to sound a signal, etc.:
1300- K. Rich. 2.263.6714 Thenne a meryere note he blewe. c1300 Beu. of Ham. (A) 775 Ðre motes a blew al arowe, pat pe bor him scholde knowe. 1400- Le Ven. de Tw. 1.153 And than ye shull blowe .iij. motes, yf yowr hund ne chace not wel hym. c1400 Laud Tr. Bk. 1591 When he hadde blowen the thridde blast, The knytes come aboute him fast. c1426 Lyd., De Guil. Pilg. 2.14311 They blowe many a blast in veyn. 1430-1440 Tom. of Ers. (T) 5.57 She blewe A note, and treblyd Als. c1430 Ches. Pl., Pl. of Shep. 1.124.22 Blowe a mote for that mittinge, Whyle that home nowe in thy hande is. 1450-1500 Gol. and Gaw. 152.534 The brym blast that he blew, with ane stevin stour. c1500 Rob. H. Bal. 295.65.2 Roben set hes horne to hes mowthe, And blow a blast pat was ffol god.
III.To operate the bellows of an organ. (Since wind was supplied to the pipes of an organ by as many as twenty-six bellows, operated by hand, foot, or lever, the assistance of one or more blowers was required):
1338 Rob. Man. of Br., Rim. St. of Eng. 1.393.11266 & po pat coupe org[a]nes blowe. 1466 Inv. in Archaeol. (50) 49.4 Also he shall blow the Organs euy sounday.
IV.To blow the pryse; cf. pryse.
I.Of a player: to blow or to sound on a musical instrument:
1330-1340 Arth. and Merl. 4041 Morganor po gan to blowe. Ðat folk so gun his horn knowe. 1350-1400 Egl. of Art. 1097 Waytys blewe, to mete they wente Wyth a fulle ryalle chere. 1369 Ch., Duchess 345 Me thoght I herde an hunte blowe T’assay hys horn, and for to knowe Whether hyt were clere or hors of soune. 1375 Bar., Bruce 430.635 The Inglis host blew till assale. c1377 Fer. 4575 Rychard tok panne ys horn & blew, & Charlis y-hurd hit & wel y-knew pe auenture pat was befalle. c1400 Laud Tr. Bk. 4699 Mynstralles her pipes hente And alle other of Instrumente, Thei nakered, piped and blew, Vnto that the Cokkes crew. c1400 K. Alis. 241.4305 Ðe waites blowen pe belles rynge. c1400 Dest. of Tr. 7352 Nightwacche for to wake, waites to blow. c1450 Song of Rol. 435 Som bad Roulond to blow aftur socour. 1470- 1485 Mal., Tristram 524.11 Than kyn Arthure blew to lodgyng. c1500 Lyt. Th. 79.32 The harpyr stroke vp merrely, That they myght onethe blowe.
II.Of the instrument: to sound. (But cf. trompe, sb.2):
1121-1154 Anglo Sax. Chron. 378 (Bodl. Laud 636) Ða muneces herdon ða horn blawen. 1300- K. Rich. 2.182.4615 Trumpes blewen, tabours dashen. 1330-1340 Horn Ch. 964 Ðe trompes blewe, pe glewemen pleyd. c1400 Sowd. of Baby. His hauntes to chace he commaunde Here Bugles boldely for to blowe. c1425 Lydg.2, Two Ch. Bal. 326.17 I se huntynge I se hornes blow. 1438 (1580) Scot. Alex. Buik 1.44.1389 Trumpettis and taburnes gaylie blaw. c1489 F. Sons of Ay. 77.19 I praye you that ye mounte not vpon your horses tyll that ye here the trompetes blowe.
C. trans. or intr., to blow up = to begin to blow:
1431-1438 Lyd., Fall of Pr. 3.6.114 Anothir trumpet, of sownis ful vengable, Which bloweth up at feestis funerall. c1450 Cov. Mys., Death of Her. 176.232 Ðerfore menstre rownd a-bowte blowe up a mery fytt. 1471 Arriv. of K. Edw. IV 11.25 And than the trompetts and minstrels blewe uppe, and, with that, the Kynge browght his brothar Clarence ... to his felow-shipe. c1475 Brut (K) 2.596.21 And therewith pe Trumppetys blew vp. 1485-1495 Partenay 1324 Trompes, clarions, blew up fast sounding, The kynges baner iifte, vp-reised hy. c1485 Lyf Ch. Grete 86.2 And at the entre of the sayd cyte they sowned and blewe vp trumpes makyng grete bruyt. c1489 F. Sons of Ay. 78.14 Broder, make the trompettes to blowe vp of heygth.
Blowend, ppl. adj. (also blawend, blowand) [cf. blowen]: a1200 In Die Pent. 87.21 For pet com muchel liht, and eislic swei and blawende beman. c1350 Will. of Pal. 3358 Ðe spaynolnes hem had a-spiede & spakli gun ride, wip gret bo-baunce and bost blowand here trompes.
Blower, sb. [OE. blawere], One who blows or plays a wind instrument:
c1300 Sir Tris. 35.49.7 Mi fader me hath forlorn, Sir Rohand sickerly, The best blower of horn. c1504 Corn., Tr. and Enf. 469.18 Ffor an Instrumẽt ouerwynded is tunyd wronge Blame non but the blower on hym it is longe.
Blowing, ger. (also blaweyng, blawing, blawyng, blow-yng) [cf. blowen]:
1398 Trev., De Prop. Re. 19.132.943 The wylde Paynems were somtyme gaderyd to al manere doynge wyth the blowynge of such a manere trompe. 1400- Beu. of Ham. (C) 3049 Than Beuys gan his home blowe, That his men myght hym knowe; By that blowynge knewe syr Murdour, That they gadred to that stour. c1400 K. Alis 123.2160 Now rist grete tabour- betyng, Blaweyng of pypes, and ek trumpyng. c1400 Brut (A) 1.240.8 And men might her po blowyng out wip hornes, mo pan a pousand and one. c1475 Liber Niger Dom. Reg. 698.16 That his household meny may followe the more redyere after by the blowing of their trompets. c1485 Lyf. Ch. Grete. 140.4 Byleue not pat the frenssh men that be within the toure ben of soo feble condycyon that ye shal make theym aferde wyth blowyng & sownyng of hornes.
Blowyng [cf. blowing]
Blysse, sb. [OE. bliss joy], Applied to a chorus of birds:
*c1430 Lydg., Min. Po. 228 A blysse of bryddes me had abyde, For cause there song mo then one.
Blythe, Blyve [cf. blithe]; Bogle [cf. bugle]; Bole [cf. bell]
Bombard, sb. (also bumbarde) [OF. bombarde], A shawm (cf. schallemele):
1390-1393 Gow., Con. Aman. 8.2482 It thoghte as al the hevene cride In such acord and such a soun Of bombard and of clarion With Cornemuse and Schallemele That it was half a mannes hele So glad a noise forto hiere. c1426 Lyd., De Guil. Pilg. 386.14303 Bombardys and corne-musys, Thys ffloutys ek, with sotyll musys. c1450 Sq. of Lowe Deg. 1072 There was myrth and melody ... With pypes, organs, and bum-barde.
Bordoun [cf. burdoun]; Bosyn [cf. busyn]
Braggen, vb. [prob. OF. braguer; ? LL. bragire to bray], trans. and intr., Of a trumpet or a trumpeter: to sound, or cause to sound, in loud tones; to reverberate:
1350-1400 Morte Arth. 1484 Thane pe Bretones boldely braggene peire tromppez Ibid. 4108 Bremly the brethemen bragges in troumppes, In cornettes comlyly, whene knyghttes assembles, And thane jolyly enjoynys peis jentylle knyghttes. 1382-1384 Wye.3, Josh. 6.5 And whanne the voyce of the trompe lenger and thicker ful sowneth, and in oure eeris braggith. Ibid. 6.20 Thanne al the puple criynge out, and criynge the trumpis, after that into the eeris of the multitude the sown braggide.
Braggin [cf. braggyng]
Braggyng, ger. (also braggin) [cf. braggen]:
1400- Wars of Alex. (D) 180.3037 Now ere pe bataile boune with braggins in trumpis. Ibid. 181.3037 With braggyng of trompettes.
Breemly [cf. bremely]
Bref, sb. (also breu, brev) [OF. bref < L. brevis short], A musical note, written as a square, having in the early 13th century a rhythmic value comparable to that of the present-day eighth note but by the 14th and 15th centuries, as faster rhythms were devised, a value approximating that of the present-day half- note. In relative value a breve was equal to two or three semibreves or from one-third to one-half of a long, q. v.:
c1460 Town. Pl., Sh.s’ Pl., I 137.657 Say, what was his song? hard ye not how he crakyd it? Thre brefes to a long. *c1480 Will of Bristowe (Somerset Ho.) An Imnar [Hymner] closed wt brevys and longes. c1500 Leck. Prov. 477.9 He that lyst to sett a goode trew songe May not make his breuys to short nor his largs to longe.
Breken, vb. [OE. brecan], trans., To utter the notes of a song; to sing; also, in the phrase to break out: to begin to sing:
c1410 Lant. of Lit. 58.15 But syngars in the fendis chirche breken curiouse nootis. c1460 Town. Pl., Sh.s’ Pl., I 113.422 Brek outt youre voce let se as ye yelp ... now, in payn of a skelp This sang thou not lose.
Brekinge, ger. (also brekeynge, brekynge) [cf. breken]:
1350-1370 Spec. Christ. 230.4 God aske not brekeynge of voys bot clennes of hert. c1370 Wyc.1, F. Cont. L. 191.27 & of schort tyme panne weren more veyn iapis founden; deschaunt, countre note & orgon & smale brekynge, pat stirip veyn men to daunsynge more pan to morn-ynge. c1387 Usk, Test. of L. 2.9.9 ‘O,’ quod she, ‘there is a melodye in heven, which clerkes clepen “armony”; but that is not in brekinge of voice, but it is a maner swete thing of kyndely werching.
Brekinge, ppl. adj. [cf. breken]:
c1387 Usk, Test. of L. 2.9.32 This blisse is a maner of sowne delicious in a queynte voice touched, and no dinne of notes; there is non impression of breking labour.
Brekynge [cf. brekinge]
Brem, adj. and adv. (also brym) [OE. breme illustrious], Of musical sounds: distinguished by strength, vigor, or brilliance; capable of producing such sound:
1300- Gaw. and Gr. Kn. 1601 There wat blaw- yng of prys in mony breme horne. 1398-1405 Curs. M. (C) 5.24847 Ðar bleu on paim mani brem blast. 1400- Wars of Alex. (A) 180.3038 Ðe breme bemen blaste beres to pe welken. 1400-1425 Al. Poem on Fort. 2.7.11 Kenettes questede to quelle, Al so breme so any belle. 1450-1500 Gol. and Gaw. 152.534 The brym blast that he blew, with ane stevin stour. c1500 Anc. Songs & Ball. 1.64.27 Briddes singeth breme.
Bremely, adv. (also breemly, bremli, bremly, bremlych) [OE. breme + ly, lych], Clearly, brilliantly:
1300- Gaw. and Gr. Kn. 509 Brydde busken to bylde, & bremlych syngen. 1350-1400 Morte Arth. 4108 Bremly the brethemen bragges in troumppes, In cornettes comlyly. c1350 Will. of Pal. 23 & briddes ful bremely on pe bowes singe. 1400- Will. and Wer. 257.9 And briddes bremely on the bowes singe. c1500 D. and L. 364 Thou hast blowen thy blast bree[m]lye abroade.
Bremli, Bremly, Bremlych [cf. bremely]
Breste, sb. [OE. breost breast], Applied to the voice in singing: vocal capacity or quality:
C1500 Leck. Prov. 477.4 A naturall breste is goode with sowndes of moderacion A glorifiede beste [sic] is to curyus withe notis of alteracion. Ibid. 477.7 A breste to audible mowntithe to af-fexion He that mesurithe in the meane causithe more deuocion.
Bretheman, sb. [OE. bræth breath + mann man], Applied to a performer on a wind musical instrument:
1350-1400 Morte Arth. 4108 Bremely the brethe-men bragges in troumppes, In cornettes comlyly whene knyghttes assembles, And thane jolyly enjoynys peis jentylle knyghttes.
Breu [cf. bref]
Breuyarie, sb. [L. breviarium], An abridged psalter; a breviary:
c1380 Wyc.1, Rule and Test. 41.14 Do clerkis deuyn officis after pe ordre of po holy chirche of rome, out taken pe sautir, of wheche pei may haue breuyaries, pat is smalle sauteris or abreggid.
Brev [cf. bref]
Brugge, sb. (also brygge) [OE. brycg bridge], A thin wooden rack which has been grooved for strings and mounted on the belly of a stringed musical instrument so that the vibrations of the strings can be transmitted to the body of the instrument; the bridge of a stringed instrument:
1387 Trev., Poly. 3.211.3,6,10 As in melodie of oon streng if pe streng is i-strant ende-longes uppon pe holownesse of a tree and de-departede evene a two by a brugge i-sette pere under [in eiper party of pe streng pe soun schal be diapason if pe streng is y-streyned and touched, and if pe streng is departed euene a pre and pe brygge y-sett under] so pat he departede by [twene pe] tweie deles and pe pridde, panne pe lenger del of pe streng if it is touched schal eue a sown pat hatte diatesseroun, and if he is departed in nyne, and the brugge y-sette under bytwene the laste partie and pe oper deel, panne the lenger deel of pe streng if it is i- touched schal eue a soun pat hatte tonus, for nyne conteyneth eite and pe eitepe partie of eyte, as in pis figure pat folowep.
Brute [cf. bruyt]
Bruyt, sb. (also brute) [OF. bruit clamor, noise], Applied to the sound of musical instruments:
1474 Rec. of Hist. of Tr. 1.288.12 He herd at the poort a passing grete noyse & bruyt of trompettes clarions and tabours. C1485 Lyf Ch. Grete 86.2 At the entre of the sayd cyte they sowned and blewe vp trumpes makyng grete bruyt.
Brygge [cf. brugge]; Brym [cf. brem]; Bugell, Buggill [cf. bugle]
Bugle, sb. (also bogle, bugell, buggill, bugul, bugulle, bugyll) [L. bucullus, dim. of bos an ox], In the middle ages, a wind musical instrument of straight or semi-circular design, consisting of a hollow tube, usually of horn, which tapered gradually from the bell to the mouthpiece:
I.An instrument used for sounding military or heraldic signals, alarms, announcements and assemblies:
1300- Gaw. and Gr. Kn. 1136 With bugle to bent-felde he buske by-lyue. 1325-1350 Lyb. Disc. 45.1045 Hys bugle he gan to blowe, For hys folk hyt schuld knowe In what stede he wer. C1350 Will. of Pal. 1154 Ðanne busked pei here batayles on pe best wise, & whanne pe renkes were arayed redly as pei wold, bugles & bemes gun blowe fast, & alle maner menstracie pere was made panne. 1400- Kyng and Her. 315.16 When the kyng hys bugyll blew, Knyhtes and forsters wele it knew. 1400- Ant. of Arth. 13.5 The kynge his bugul con blau, opon the bent bides, His fayre folke on the fuilde, they flocken in fere. 1400- Av. of Arth. 72.10 The kinge his buguile con blaw, His knytus couthe hitte well knaw. 1450-1500 Gol. and Gaw. 151.523 He hard ane bugill blast brym, and ane loud blaw. C1490 Lanc. of Laik 3436 Wp goith the trumpetis, and the claryownis, Hornys, bugillis blawing furth thar sownis, That al the cuntre resownit hath about. 1500- Wed. of Sir. Gaw. 4.121 The kyng his bugle gan blowe, That hard euery knyghte and itt gan knowe, Vnto hym can they rake.
II.A hunting instrument:
c1400 Sowd. of Baby. 58 His huntes to chace he commaunde, Here Bugles boldely for to blowe. 1400- Av. of Arth. 60.3 The hunter atte the northe ende, His bugulle con he blaw. c1450 Sq. of Lowe Deg. 770 Ye shalbe set at such a tryst That herte and hynde shall come to your fyst, Your dysease to dryve you fro, To here the bugles there yblow, With theyr begles in that place, And sevenscore raches at his re-chase.
Bugle horn, sb. (also bugull horn, bugyll horn) [cf. bugle & horn], Bugle, q. v.:
c1400 K. Alis. 281.5273 Of golde he sent hym a coroune, And a swipe fair faukoune, Tweye bugle-horns, and abowe also. c1400 Brut (A) 1.240.7 And men sette vppon her Heuedes chapelettes of sharpe netles, and ij squyers blow in her eres wip ij grete bugle homes, op-pon po ij prisoners.
Bugul, Bugulle [cf. bugle]; Bugull horn [cf. bugle horn]; Bugyll [cf. bugle]; Bugyll horn [cf. bugle horn]; Bumbarde [cf. bombard]; Burdon [cf. burdoun]
Burdoun, sb. (also bordoun, burdon, burdown) [OF. bourdon the drone of the bagpipe], In instrumental or vocal music, the recurring refrain, in a low, usually bass, tone, which is sung or sounded in harmony with a melody of higher pitch; also, a musical instrument so sounded:
1300- Carol 110.161 Wyp bordoun hauteyn menamonkes lat me hure ou synge. 1338 Rob. Man. of Br., Rim. St. of Eng. 1.393.11263 Of po clerkes pat best coupe synge, Wyp treble, mene, & burdoun. c1387 Ch., GPCT. 673 This Somonour bar to hym a stif burdoun. 1390-1410 Vis. of Tund. 61.1917 Bothe trebull and meyne and burdown And oder instrumentis full mony.
Burdown [cf. burdoun]; Bussyn [cf. busyn]
Busyn, sb. (also bosyne, bussyn, buys syne) [OF. bosine, buisine trumpet, clarion < L. bucina a curved horn], A straight trumpet, like the beme, q. v., though larger; also, the sound of the instrument:
1340 Ayen. of In. 137.22 Ðet yef he eth oper yef de drincp yef he wakep yef he slepp pet pe ilke orible bosyne him went to pe yeare: ‘com to pine dome.’ 1474 Rec. of Hist. of Tr. 2.376.26 Tabours, trompettes, clarions, hornes & busynes began to sowne. 1481 God. of Bol. 53.31 They began ... to whystle, and sowne trumpes and busynes in the woodes. c1489 F. Sons of Ay. 137.27 He yssued oute of the wode wyth his companye, and made bussynes & hornes to be blouen and came for to socoure his men. 1489 Fayttes and Chyual. 79.3 Other by the sowne of trompettys or by different sowne as of hornes that men called buyssynes as of other manere thyngys.
Buyssyne [cf. busyn]
- C -
Cadence, sb. [L. cadens <; cadere to fall], Rhythm or measure:
c1380 Ch., House F. 623 And never-the-lesse hast set thy wit ... To make bookys, songes, dytees, In ryme, or elles in cadence. c1440 Guis. and Ghis. (A) 36.620 For goode ys myne entencion Thogh I florysh nat with metyr and cadence.
Camparnole, sb. (also compurnole) [App. a corrupt dim. of L. campana bell], A small bell used for ornamental or signalling purposes:
1387 Trev., Poly. 4.65.4 A compurnole of golde for his sone. 1398 Trev., De Prop. Re. 19.144.946 Tyntinabulu is a belle other a camparnole.
Canon [cf. canoun]
Canoun, sb. (also canon) [OE. canon; OF. canoun; L. canon rule], The Canon of the Mass, q. v.: that part of the Mass containing the words and prayers of the consecration:
*1395 Purvey Remonstr. (1851) 42 After the sacringe, in the canoun of the Masse. 1398-1405 Curs. M. (C) 4.21190 Ðe first mess pat sent petre sang, Was par pan na canon lang Bot pater-noster in paa dais, Na langer canon was, it sais.
Cantelene, sb. [OF. cantilene; L. cantilena an old song], A plainsong, or canto-fermo:
c1425 St. Mary of Oeg. 178.17 Soply she bygan to synge wip an hye voys and clere, & cecyd not pe space of pree dayes and pree nyghtes to louve god, to do pankeynges and to sette to-gedir a ful swete cantelene and melody wip doucet not and ryme of god.
Cantica, sb. [L. Canticum Canticorum], The Song of Songs:
1398-1405 Curs. M. (C) 2.8472 Ðe thride boke efter pa. tua pe quilk man clepes cantica.
Canticil [cf. canticle]
Canticle, sb. (also canticil, canticul, canticuler, cantycl) [L. canticulum a little song],
I.Properly, a sacred song or hymn derived from scriptural sources other than the Book of Psalms, which is sung during public worhip or in the performance of the hours of the breviary, e. g., the Magnificat, the Nunc Dimittis, etc.; rarely, a psalm:
c1250 Gen. and Exod. 117.4124 And wrot an canticle on ðat booc. c1400 Rule of St. Ben. (Pr.) 17.25 Ilke Sunday wid-uten lentin sal pe cantikils be said wid “alleluia.” Ibid. 18.23 And sipin pe ymne and te verset, pe cantikyl of pe gospel. c1443 Pec., Reule 407.18 And also opere psalmes and canticlis and versis of preising in sum derk psalmes ben ful good into pe office of preising. a1450 Lyd., Min. Po.1, Miser. Dom. 74.89 Many Canticles in hooly writ be founde. Ibid. 74.105 The firste Canticle remembryd in Regum Was maad by Anna, moodir of Samuel, Which began thus, Exultauit cor meum. Ibid. 75.123 Amyd the ffires the Innocentys thre ... Sang the Canticle Benedicite. Ibid., Vir. of Mass 90.68 Songes of theyr exyle myght nat acorde With the Cantyclys of Iuda and Syon. 1450-1500 Stanz. Life of Chr. 130.3876 Thenne might thay sing solempnely this canticu-ler wel of the best.
II.A secular song:
a1450 Lyd., Min. Po.l, Miser. Dom. 72.33 Ther be Canticulis of Conquest and victorye That be songe at feestis marcial.
III.The Song of Songs:
1435 Mis., Fire of Love 22.36 In pe cantikyls it is sayd ... ‘lufe als dede is strange, And lufe is hard as hell.’
Canticorum, sb. [L. Canticum Canticorum], The Song of Songs:
a1450 Lyd., Min. Po.1, Vir. of Mass 106.442 Thys lambe remembryd in Salamon[y]s songs, Callyd Canticorum, most amerous of delyte.
Canticul, Canticuler [cf. canticle]
Cant organe, sb. [app. anglicized from L. cantus or-ganum, a term applied to the earliest form of me-dieval polyphony]:
*1501 Douglas Pal. Hon. I.xlii In modulatioun hard I play and sing ... Cant organe, figura-tioun, and gemmel.
Cantycl [cf. canticle]; Caraland [cf. carolend]; Carel [cf. carol]
Carol, sb. (also carel, carolle, carrall, carroll, karol, karolle) [OF. carole dance, Christmas song; ML. choraula a dance to the flute],
I.A ring-dance accompanied by a choral song sung by the dancers and spectators; hence applied to any festive occasion in which the carol dance is the main event:
1303 Rob. Man. of Br., Hand. Syn. 36.985 yf pou make karol or play, pou halewyst nat pyn halyday. 1307-1327 Met. Tr. on Dreams 1.266 Caroles make ant condles lyhte, That is joie ant murthe bryhte. 1330-1340 Arth. and Merl. 1714 Foules miri in wode gredep, Damisels carols ledep. c1350 Parl. of Thre Ages 254 With coundythes and carolles and compaynyes sere. c1369 Ch., Romaunt R. 781 Amydde the karole for to daunce. c1381 Ch., Knight 1931 Festes, instrumentz, caroles, daunces, Lust and array, and alle the circumstances Of love, which that I rekned and rekne shal, By ordre weren peynted on the wal. 1390-1393 Gow., Con. Aman. 8.2679 To make noise in mannes Ere .... For olde men which souneth lowe, With Harpe and Lute and with Citole. The hovedance and the Carole ... A softe pas thei dance and trede. 1398-1405 Curs. M. (C) 2.7601 O pair karol suilk was pe sang. Ibid. 5.28146 Caroles, iolites, and plaies, Ic haue be haldyn and ledde in ways. c1400 K. Alis. 104.1838 Faire is pe karole of maydens gent Bope in halle and ek in tente. c1450 Love., Merl. 2.9275 Where as dawnsyng many maidenis were with many karoles & ryht merye song, at that tyme was these maidenis among. c1450 Merlin 132.15 Ther thei were met with caroles and daunces, and with all maner of ioye. c1450 King Ponth. and Sid. 61.14 And aftre soper they had carrailes, daunces, and songys to myd-nyght.
II.A group of singers:
*1483 Caxton Gold. Leg. 253.1 Thassembles of martirs, the Couentes of Confessours, the Carolles of Virgyns.
III.A song, as a roundeau, balade or virelai; rarely, a hymn:
1303 Rob. Man. of Br., Hand. Syn. 283.9000 And specyaly, at hyghe tymes, karolles to synge, and redë rymys Noght yn nonë holy stedes, Ðat myt dysturble pe prestës bedes. Ibid. 284.9043 Gerlew endyted what pey shuld syng: Ðys ys pe karolle pat pey sunge. 1390-1393 Gow., Con. Aman. 1.2708 And ek he can carolles make, Rondeal, balade, and virelai. Ibid. 1.2730 And also I have ofte assaied Rondeal, balade, and virelai For hire on whom myn herte lai to make, and also forto peinte Caroles with my wordes qweinte. 1398 Trev., De Prop. Re. 6.5.192 Thenne suche chyldern ... Wytty to lerne carolles. c1430 Aud., Poems 24.118 I pray oue al pur charyte Redis pis carol reuer-ently.
Carolen, vb. (also karolen, karrollen) [OF. caroler to dance a round dance], intr., To dance and/or sing (cf. carol):
1303 Rob. Man. of Br., Hand. Syn. 284.9040 Ðese wommen ede and tolled here oute wyp hem to karolle pe cherche aboute. 1338 Rob. Man. of Br., Rim. St. of Eng. 1.63.1777 Whan pey had karoled alder best, & ilkon schold han go to rest. 1369 Ch., Duchess 849 I sawgh hyr daunce so comlily, Carole and synge so swetely. c1369 Ch., Romaunt R. 745 A lady karolede hem that highte Gladnesse, [the] blisfull and the lighte. Ibid. 810 I wolde have karoled right fayn, As man that was to daunce blithe. 1375-1399 Scot. Coll. of Leg. 2.28.79 Zet schupe he hyme parfor to be pe mare plesand ine al degre: As to karole wel & synge. 1390-1393 Gow., Con. Aman. 4.2779 For thanne I dar wel undertake, That whanne hir list on nyhtes wake In cambre as to carole and daunce. Ibid. 6.868 And if it so befalle among, That sche carole upon a song, Whan I it hiere I am so fedd, That I am fro miself so ledd, As thogh I were in paradis. 1398-1405 Curs. M. (C) 2.7600 Ðar karold wimmen be pe wai. 1400- (c1650) Grene Kn. 232.248 Some chuse them to justinge, Some to dance, karoll, & singe. c1426 Lyd., De Guil. Pilg. 2.11146 Now I sprynge, now I carole; I tryppe, I cryë, synge & daunce. *1483 Caxton, Gold. Leg. 147.3 He ... sent them into the gardyn to daunce & to carolle.
Carolend, ppl. adj. (also caraland, carraland, karolland) [cf. carolen]:
1303 Rob. Man. of Br., Hand. Syn. 287.9137 Ðese men pat ede so karolland Aile pat erë hand yn hand. 1390-1393 Gow., Con. Aman. 6.1845 Ther was ful many a tymber bete And many a maide carolende. 1438 (1580) Scot. Alex. Buik 3.323.7427 Togidder hand in hand eid thay, singand and carraland iolely. Ibid. 4.424.10595 Come doune fra the kirnalis all, Dansand and caraland alsua.
Carole-wyse, sb. [ME. carol + OE. wise], The manner of the carol, q. v.:
c1390 Ch., LGW. (G) 201 And after that they wenten in compas, Daunsynge aboute this flour an esy pas, And songen, as it were in carole-wyse, This balade, which that I shal yow devyse.
Caroling, ger. (also carolyng, karollyng) [cf. carolen]:
1303 Rob. Man. of Br., Hand. Syn. 284.9041 Beune ordeyned here karollyng. c1369 Ch., Romaunt R. 754 But couthe ynow of sich doyng As longeth unto karolyng. Ibid. 804 “Come, and if it lyke yow To dauncen, dauncith with us now.” And I, withoute tariyng, Went into the karolyng. 1390-1393 Gow., Con. Aman. 6.144 Wher as I moste daunce and singe The hove-dance and carolinge. c1395 Ch., Canon’s Y. 1345 Ne lady lustier in carolynge. 1450-1500 Stanz. Life of Chr. 201.5937 Thow in po ryng of carolyng spredis in armes furth from the. c1400 K. Alis. 59.1043 At pe fest was harpyng ... Carolyng and turneieyng. c1450 Love., Merl. 3.571.21433 But whanne they beheld that orchard so grene, that neuere toforn tyme there hadde non bene, and behelden the karolyng and daunsyng also.
Carolle [cf. carol]; Carolyng [cf. caroling]
Carp, sb. [cf. carpen], Applied to a musical discourse or recitation:
c1370 Pearl 883 In sounande note a gentyl carpe; Ful fayre pe mode pay fonge in fere.
Carpen, vb. (also karpen) [ON. karpa to brag; L. carpere carpere], intr., To sing or chatter; also, of a minstrel, to perform:
1350-1375 Erem. and Owt. 91.7 A man that wylle synge or carpe, Be hyt wyth geterne or wyth harpe. c1350 Som. Son. 364.46 Coupe I carpe carpyng creftly & clere Of pat birde bastons in bale me bounde. c1400 Lyd., Churl and B. 108.278 Better is to me to sing on thornes sharpe Than in a Cage with a Carle to carpe. c1400 K. Alis. 5981 Ðe mynstrales synge, pe jogelours carpe. 1430-1440 Tom. of Ers. (T) 18.313 ‘ To harpe or carpe, whare-so pou gose, Thomas, pou sall hafe pe chose sothely.’ And he saide, ‘harpynge kepe j none; ffor tonge es chefe of mynstralsye.’
Carpyng, ger. [cf. carpen]:
c1350 Som. Son. 364.46 Coupe I carpe carpyng creftly & clere. c1450 Tourn. of Tott. 991.37 Ðen sayd Randolfe pe refe, “Euer be he waryed pat about pys carpyng lenger wold be taryed!” c1500 Anc. Songs & Ball. 1.82.1 I herde a carpyng of a clerk.
Cfaut, sb. (also cefaut) [c + fa + ut; cf. gamme], In the Guidonian system of hexachords, the musical tone c, which may occur as fa in the hexachordum durum (on G), or as ut in the hexachordum naturale (on C):
c1450 Pow., Treat. Counter. 244.1 Cefaut hathe 4 acordis: mi, sol, la be propechaunt, & quarre in Csolfaut. Ibid. 245.25 Of the qvatrebil sight nedith no ferther to ymagin, ffor pu maist ymagin fro Csolfaut vn-to Ela as pu hast do fro Cfaut vn-to Csolfaut. c1450 Anon., Treat. Counter. 262.29 Ðan pe same low not pat ye haue in Cfaut holde it & chong your syght into Csolfaut & not your voice.
Chanten [cf. chaunten]; Chante-plure [cf. chaunte pleure]; Chanter [cf. chauntour]; Chanteres [cf. chauntresse]; Chantir [cf. chauntour]; Chantry [cf. chaunterie]; Chantur [cf. chauntour]
Chapelle, sb. [OF. chapele chapel], A “chapel” of singers, so-called from the fact that they were maintained by the owner, usually a nobleman, of a private chapel:
* 1420 Siege Rouen 1295 in Archaeol. XXII.381 His chapelle mette hym at the dore there, And wente bifore hym alle in fere.
Chapiter, sb. (also chaptur, chapyter) [OF. chapitre; L. capitulum head, chapter of book], ‘An anthem in the Ambrosian rite said at Lauds after the psalms and before the antiphone, and varying with the day.’ Dict. Chr. Antiq. (NED):
1400- Rewl. of Sust. 105.18 The absolucions schullin be seyde in pe tune of chapitres, pe benisons in pe tune of lessons. Ibid. 105.21 And also pe orisouns at pe houres of pe day, of prime, of mydday, & of none, schul be deter-minyd vnder the tune of chapiteris. *1450-1530 Myrr. Our Ladye 126 A chapyter ys as moche to say as a lytel hed ... yt ys alway taken of holy scripture, and often of the pystel that is redde in the masse the same daye.
*1482 Monk of Evesham (Arb.) 21 When the chaptur was ronge as the tyme requyred to calle the couent to matens, he went than to chirche as he did the daye before.
Chaptur, Chapyter [cf. chapiter]
Charm, sb. [OF. charme < L. carmen song, incantation], An incantation:
c1390 Ch., Man of Law. 755 The mooder was an elf, by aventure yeomen, by charmes or by sorcerie, And every wight hateth hir compaignye. 1393-1399 Lang., Piers Pl. (C) 20.19 For thaugh Ich seye hit myself ich haue saued with this charme Of men and of wymmen meny score thousend. c1440 De Clar. Mul. 64.1298 She cowde also with syngynge of charmys The heuen-ly bodyes troble many a sele. c1460 Promp. Parv. (W) Charme: Incantacio.
Chateren, vb. (also chatiren, cheatren, cheteren) [imitative; cf. Du. koeteren], intr., To chatter, trill, twitter:
1230-1250 Anc. R. 67.35 Sperruwe ... chea-tereð euer ant chirmeð. 1387 Trev., Poly. 1.239.2 Ðral makip his fare, wip mouth pan cheterep pe stare. c1389 Wyc.2, On Twenty-Five Art. 3.479.36 And not fulfille po eeris of hem and of po pepul wip cryynge of pinge pat nouper pei ne po pepul understoden, as yf jayes and pyes chatiriden.
Chateryng, ger. [cf. chateren]:
c1350 Parl. B. 107.2 it in pe wode pere was discord porugh rusti chateryng of pe iay Of musik he coude non acord.
Chateryng, ppl. adj. [cf. chateren]:
1230-1250 Anc. R. 67.35 Sperruwe is a chea-terinde brid. a1450 Lyd., Min. Po-2, As a Myds. R. 781.29 Chateryng pyes whan they come in presence, Moost malapert ther verdite to purpoose.
Chatiren, [cf. chateren]
Chaunt, sb. (also chawnce) [OF. chant < L. cantu-m], A song or melody:
c1449 Meth., Amor. and Cleop. 14.376 ‘I graunt,’ quoth Amoryus, ‘be-gynne now your chauntes.’ c1450 Love., Hist. of Hol. Gr. 1.238.342 And as the kyng & Nasciens lien In this trawunce, it herden they A more wondirful Chawnce.
Chaunten, vb. (also chanten, chawnten) [OF. chanter < L. cantare], trans. and intr.,
c1390 Ch., Miller 3367 Herestow nat Absolon, That chaunteth thus under oure boures wal? c1395 Ch., Merchant 1850 The slakke skyn aboute his nekke shaketh, Whil that he sang, so chaunteth he and craketh. c1407 Lyd., Reson and Sens. 196 But for Ioye al wakynge, To here the briddes chaunte and synge. c1460 Town., Pl., Sh.s’ Pl, II 122.189 Lett se how ye chaunt.
II.To sing a psalm, canticle, etc., in one of the psalm tones. (In the Middle Ages the verb sing, q. v., appears to have been more usual in this sense):
1350-1370 Spec. Christ. 86.4 Vayn arguynge; foly laughynge; scorneful blerynge; proude and presumptuose spekynge; nyce and ioly chaunt-ynge; or to synge more for praysynge of men then of god. c1389 Wyc.2, On Twenty-Five Art. 3.480.23 Ðerfore, as Seint Gregore techis in po lawe, dekenys and mynystris of po auter schullen not chaunt ne syng but rede po gospel, c1440 Promp. Parv. (H) Chawnten, discanto, organiso.
Chaunte pleure, sb. (also chante-plure, chaunte plure) [OF. chanter to sing + pleurer to weep], ‘A celebrated poem of the 13th century bears the name of ‘Chantepleure,’ or ‘Pleure chante’; it is addressed to those who sing in this world and who will weep in the next.’ Godefroy.
c1380 Ch., Anel. 320 I fare as doth the song of Chante -pleure; For now I pleyne, and now I pleye. 1412-1420 Lyd., Troy Bk. 1 1.2.914 Conformyng hem to pe chaunt[e] plure, Now to synge & sodeinly to wepe. 1431-1438 Lyd., Fall of Pr. 1.1.2159 Is it not lik onto the chaunteplure, Gynnyng with ioie, eendyng in wrechidnesse? a1450 Lyd., Min. Po.2, Compl. for Lady of Gl. 612.96 Ðey song lyche to pe Chaunteplure. Ibid. 3.6.8 She braideth euer on the chaunteplure: Now song, now wepyng, now wo, now gladnesse.
Chaunte plure [cf. chaunte pleure; Chaunterere [cf. chauntour]; Chaunteress [cf. chauntresse]
Chaunterie, sb. (also chantry, chauntery) [OF. chanterie < ML. cantaria, cantuaria an ecclesiastical benefice],
I.A benefice granted one or more priests for the purpose of celebrating Mass for the souls of persons designated by the grantor:
c1387 Ch., GPCT. 510 And ran to Londoun unto Seinte Poules To seken hym a chaunterie for soules. c1450 Eng. Reg. 93.1 A Charter of the Abesse of Godestowe, yevyng licence to the maister of the hospitall of seynt Iohn to sey masse in a Chauntry of hym, fyfe tymes in the yere. c1460 Gaw. and Carle of Carel. 203.548 A chauntery here wul I lete make, x prestis syngynge til domysday. 1480 Bury W. 58.2 That the collacion of my seid Chaunterie whan it shall happen in any man wyse to be woyde, that than the priour of the Monasterie of Bury be fore seyde shuld have the gyfte and collacion of the same, as in the same indenture more pleyn-ly is declarid. 1491-1492 Rec. St. Mary at Hill 170.24 Item, we charge vs as wele with the cherche Rentes as with the Rentes belongyng vnto the chauntryes for an hole yere.
II.Hence, a place for singing, usually of special Masses for the dead: a chapel provided with an altar located in the nave or transept, or added to the choir, of a church or cathedral; occasionally, a detached structure in a churchyard: 1417 Doc. in Sur. Soc. (1888) 85.13 Behynd the dese of the hall of the foresayd chauntery. 1418 E. E. Wills 31.15 & for the soules aforsaid, in the Chaunterie of the Chirche of Seint Leonarde. c1448 Will in Sur. Soc.7 (1855) 131.1 Also I bequethe to the autre of ye chauntre of Wilughby in repairyng of the ornamentis xl s.
III.Applied to chapel singing:
1300- Gaw. and Gr. Kn. 63 Fro pe kyng wat cummen with knytes in to pe halle, De chauntre of pe chapel cheued to an ende.
Chauntery [cf. chaunterie]
Chaunting, ger. (also chauntyng, chawntyng) [cf. chaunten],
c1370 Wye.1, Ord. of Priest. 169.22 &, as austyn & gregory techen wel, preiere is betre her d of god bi compunccion & wepyng & s tille devocion, as moyses & ihu crist diden, pan bi gret criynge & ioly chauntynge pat s tirep men & wommen to daunsynge & lettip men fro pe sentence of holy writt, as Magnyficat, sanctus & agnus dei, pat is so broken bi newe knackynge. c1389 Wye.2, On Twenty-Five Art. 3.481.14 Lorde! wheper pis chauntyng of Kyries, Sanctus, and Agnus, wip Gloria in excelsis and Patrem maken pat men her en nout po wordis but onely a sowne !
II.Applied to harmonized singing; part music; cantus organicus :
c1440 Promp. Parv. (H) Chawntynge: Discantus, cantus organicus. c1504 Corn., Tr. and Enf. 470.17 Enformacõn is so curious in his chauntynge That to bere the true playne song it is not possible.
1382-1384 Wye.3, Isa. 8.19 Deuynoures, that sounen strongli in their chauntingus.
Chauntour, sb. (also chanter, chantir, chantur, chaunterere, chauntre, chauntur, chawntor, chawntour) [L. cantor],
1382-1384 Wye.3, I Par. 15.20 Forsothe the chauntours Eman, Asaph, and Ethan, in brasen cymbalis syngynge. 1387 Trev., Poly. 2.349.17 Linus ... pe grete chauntour [musicus]. c1460 Promp. Parv. (W) Chawntor: cantor. 1475-1499 Part. of Blois 12180 What nedeth it to speke of trechetours? Of her nyse playes or of gestours, Or of chauntours pe grete maisters.
II.A member of a church or cathedral choir; a chorister:
1300- Frag. of Life of Brig. 623.8 A chant or was [in] pulke stude, as were by olde dawe. 1382-1384 Wye.3, Ezek. 40.44 With oute the ynner ate, treseries of chaunters. 1463 Bury W. 16.33 Also in leche wyse I will that .... the chawntours [have] eche of them vjd.
III.A chantry priest (cf. chaunterie):
* 1483 Cax., Gold. Leg. 268.1 Whan the chantour herd hym he ... shewed hym that he erred.
IV.The leader of a choir; a precentor or cantor:
1382-1384 Wye.3, Ps., Prol. 736.2 Asaph, the chauntour of the temple. 1400- Rewl. of Sust. 103.1 And pan pe chaunterere schal biginne pe verse & alle pe couent after, & atte Gloria patri Eche Suster schal turne ageynis oper. c1400 Rule of St. Ben. (Pr.) Ðe chantir sall be-ginne solemply pis hym: ‘ Veni, creator.’ c1425 St. Mary of Oeg. 149.1 And so hit felle on a daye pat a goodly man, famylyer and frende of relygious persones, Guy, sumtyme chauntour of pe chirche Cameracense, turnyd oute of his wey to viset hir. *1483 Cax., Gold. Leg. 242.2 The freres assembled at pryme and the chauntor began Iam lucis orto.
Chauntre [cf. chauntour]
Chauntresse, sb. (also chanteres, chaunteress) [OF. chanteresse songstress], A female chorister or precentor:
1400- Rewl. of Sust. 102.29 And pan pe Chauntresse schal bigynne pe verse. *1450-1530 Myrr. Our Ladye 36 Hys syster Mary was chyfe chanteres in the womens quyer. *c1450 in Aungier Syon (1840) 360 The chefe chauntresse . . To whose charge . .. it belongeth for . . to sette the song euen and mensurably.
Chauntur [cf. chauntour]; Chauntyng [cf. chaunting]; Chawnce [cf. chaunt]; Chawnten [cf. chaunten]; Chawntor, Chawntour [cf. chauntour]; Chawntyng [cf. chaunting]; Cheaterinde [cf. chateryng]; Cheatren, Cheteren [cf. chateren]; Chim, Chimb [cf. chym]; Chimben [cf. chymen]
Chirche-songe, sb. [OE. cirice church + song; cf. song], Any song of a sacred or liturgical character:
a1250 Owl and Night. 983 Nis noper to lud ne to long At rite time chirche song. Ibid. 1034 Vor ich mai do par gode note An bringe hom loue tipinge, Vor ich of chirche songe singe.
Chirm, sb. [cf. chirmen], Applied to the singing of birds:
1450 How a Louer 386.100 But [p]ough helas I had almost forgete The chirme of briddys feir and swete.
Chirmen, vb. [OE. cirman to cry out], intr., Of birds; to sing or warble:
1230-1250 Anc. R. 67.36 Sperruwe is a cheaterinde brid; chea-tereð euer ant chirmeð. 1485-1495 Partenay Tentes, pauilons freshly wrought and good, Doucet songes hurde of briddes enuiron, Whych meryly chirmed in the grene wod.
Chiteren, vb. (also chitren, chyteren) [By-form of chateren, q. v.], intr., To twitter:
1390-1393 Gow., Con. Aman. 5.5700 Bot sche with al no word mai soune, Bot chitre and as a brid jargoune. c1395 Ch., Canon’s Y. 1397 They mowe wel chiteren as doon thise jayes. *1483 Cax., Gold. Leg. 315.1 The Swalowes chyteryd and Songe.
Chiteryng, ger. (also chyteryng, chytteryng) [cf. chiteren]:
1382-1384 Wye.3, IV K. 21.6 And he dyuynede, and he weytide the dyuynynge of chiterynge of briddis. 1398 Trev., De Prop. Re. 19.131.942 Chytterynge of byrdes . . . And some voys sygnyfyeth & tokenyth by kynde: as chytterynge of byrdes and gronyng of syke men. 1401 Rej. of Jacke Up. 2.40.7 Chidyng with blasphemie or chyteryng as chowes.
Chitren [cf. chiteren]; Choir [cf. quer]; Choristar [cf. querester]
Chorus, sb. [L. chorus; Gr. choros a ring dance], Vocal harmony:
1398 Trev., De Prop. Re. 19.136.944 Neuerthelesse the accorde of all sownes hyghte Symphonia in lyke wyse as the accorde of dyse voyce hyghte Chorus.
Christe eleison, sb. [cf. Kyrie eleison], The middle section of the first item of the Ordinary of the Mass, Kyrie eleison, Christe eleison, Kyrie eleison, q. v. (see illustrations under Kyrie eleison).
Christel [cf. Christe eleison]
Chym, sb. (also chim, chimb, chymb) [OF. chimbe; OE. cimbal; L. cymbalum < Gr. kymbalon cymbal, bell; perhaps often misued for cymbal, q. v., with which it is closely associated],
I.A translating term for L. cimbalum: = a cymbal. (That medieval translators understood chimes in the sense of cymbals is uncertain. A 14th century Ms. (Lambeth Palace Library Ms. 233) contains an illustration in which David is depicted playing a set of chime-bells with a hammer (see II), and a 16th century commentator on Bartholomaeus speaks of “cymballes” that are “compassed like a hoope” with five or seven “half-bells” hanging from the upper part of the hoop. Cf. Galpin, 261-263):
*1340 Hamp., Psalt. 150.5 Louys him in chymys wele sownand: louys him in chymys of ioiynge. c1350 Surt. Ps. (C) 19.179.4 Loves him ever in laude, In chimbes ful wele ringande.
II.A set of eight or nine small bells, either cup- or gong-shaped, suspended in a frame or set on a stand, and sounded by the performer with a hammer, used chiefly for providing instrumental accompaniment for religious ceremonies:
1398-1405 Curs. M. (C) 2.12193 Als a chim or brasin bell, pat noper can vnderstand ne tell Wat takens pair aun sune, pat witt bath wanis and resune. 1463 Bury W. 28.17 I wil the seid chymes smyth forthwith Requiem eternam. Ibid. 29.20 And I wil that the berere of the paxbrede longyng to Seynt Marie . . . haue yeerly viijd: so he take hede to kepe my grave clene, the chymes, and Seynt Marie awter.
III.A set of four or more bells in a church steeple or bell-tower, chimed originally by hand, but by the 13th century by mechanical means: 1463 Bury W. 19.30,31 John Elys serche sewrly and owyr se . . . the chymes in ye stepyll. Ibid. 29.4,6 Itm I wil the seid Seynt Marie preest . . . haue yeerly iijs.iijd .... to the repacõn of the chymes . . . and if there nede no repacõn to neyther of the seid chymes thanne the seid Marie preest to haue the seid iijs.iijd. to the avmentacon of his lifloode.
Chymb [cf. chym]; Chymbyng [cf. chymyng]
Chymen, vb. (also chymyn, chimben) [cf. chym], trans. and intr., To tinkle musically; of a bell, to ring:
c1340 Rolle, Psalt. 11.7.12 Imange all metalles nan is that swetterly chymes than syluere. 1390-1393 Gow., Con. Aman. 4.347 Withoute soun as doth the belle, Which hath no claper forto chyme. c1440 Promp. (H) Chymyn, . . . Tintillo.
Chymyn [cf. chymen]
Chymyng, ger. (also chymbyng) [cf. chymen]:
c1426 Lyd., De Guil. Pilg. 1.6928 In thyn Erys the tawake, Thy bellys shal a chymbyng make. Ibid. 1.6977 A claper serueth in chymyng.
Chyteren [cf. chiteren]; Chyteryng, Chytteryng [cf. chiteryng]; Cimbal [cf. cymbal]
Cithara, sb. (also sithara) [OF. cithare, cittern < L.