1. Early Spanish Piano Music, 1740-1840
1. According to Ferguson/Keyboard, p.5, the clavichord remained in use in Spain until the early nineteenth century, largely as a practice instrument for organists, and sometimes with a separate pedalboard attached. The term clavicordio indicated harpsichord. Clavichord was designated in Spain by the term monacordio.
2. Chas/Spain, pp.127-128.
3. Anglès/Catálogo I:330-333.
4. The major editions of Scarlatti’s sonatas include Opere complete per clavicembalo, ed. Alessandro Longo (Milan: Ricordi, 1907-1937); Sixty Sonatas Edited in Chronological Order, ed. Ralph Kirkpatrick (New York: G. Schirmer, 1953); Sonatas, ed. Kenneth Gilbert (Paris: Heugel, 1971-); Complete Keyboard Works in Facsimile (from the Manuscript and Printed Sources), ed. Ralph Kirkpatrick (New York: Johnson, 1972). “K” and “L” numbers refer to Kirkpatrick and Longo numbers, respectively.
5. For more recent research on Scarlatti, see Sheveloff/”Scarlatti.”
6. Thomas Roseingrave (1690-1766), English printer and composer, was a friend of Scarlatti’s from their days in Rome.
7. Kirkpatrick/Scarlatti, pp.252-253.
8. Ibid., p.256.
9. For a discussion of the use of the crux in some twentieth-century Spanish sonatas, see Powell/“Halffter.”
10. Recall that the pianoforte was invented in 1709 by the Italian Bartolomeo Cristofori.
11. Kirkpatrick/Scarlatti, pp. 178-184.
12. Apparently some of Scarlatti’s later sonatas do not feature difficult hand-crossings because he became too fat to cross his hands at the harpsichord. See Scholes/Burney, pp.86-87.
13. For futher discussion of guitar effects in Scarlatti’s sonatas, see chapter 4.
14. Scholes/Burney, p.87.
15. I am indebted to Jane Clark for providing me with much information regarding the influence of Spanish folk music on Scarlatti’s sonatas. See Clark/“Scarlatti,” pp. 19-21.
16. Newman/SCE, p.279.
17. Nin tells us in his preface to Vol. II that this sonata comes from a manuscript notebook belonging to the Spanish composer Eduardo López Chavarri (1871-1970). This sonata is also published in Marchi/ Clavicembalisti.
18. Almonte Howell, “The Sonatas of Vincente Rodriguez, A Preliminary Report,” paper presented at the meeting of the South Central Chapter of the American Musicological Society, Danville, Kentucky, April 1, 1977.
19. “Book of Toccatas for the Harpsichord distributed over all the keynotes of the octave, with the proviso that those based on white keys occur with both major and minor thirds, while those on black keys are excepted, and because of the out-of-tuneness of various of the scale degrees, occur only in the least ill-sounding form” (translation by Almonte Howell). We can note from the title that this collection represents a partial “Well-Tempered Clavier,” similar to J.K.F. Fischer’s Ariadne musica.
20. This sonata has been published in Doderer/Spanische.
21. From the preface to Climent/Anglés.
22. According to Diccionario Labor I:79, Anglés was organist of the Valencia Cathedral only from 1762 to 1772.
23. These works are extracts from a manuscript belonging to the noted Spanish pianist José Iturbi. See Nin/Classiques II:ii.
24. According to Climent, the markings in the first seven measures are from the manuscript.
25. Baciero/Nueva Biblioteca I:vii states that Albero was appointed first organist of the Royal Chapel in 1748, but Baciero/Albero I:vii gives the date as 1746.
26. Parrish/“Piano,” p.255.
27. Thus far only two works by this title, out of a projected six, have been made available in Baciero/Nueva Biblioteca I and II.
28. The Albero sonatas are located in the Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana, Venice. Baciero/Albero I:ix gives possible dates of the works as 1755-1756.
29. Fourteen of these sonatas are now available in modern edition. See Baciero/Albero.
30. Sheveloff/“Scarlatti,” p.450.
31. Baciero promises more information on Albero in Baciero/Albero II.
32. See Nin/Classiques I:iv.
33. Thanks to the efforts of Samuel Rubio, seven volumes (120 sonatas) of Soler are available, published by Union Musical Española, Madrid, 1957-1972; these volumes give the sources of the surviving manuscripts. “R” numbers refer to the Rubio edition. Frederick Marvin has also edited several volumes of Soler sonatas, which are published by Mills Music, Inc. In addition, fourteen sonatas can be found in Nin/Classiques —twelve in Vol. I, and two in Vol. II—but all with editorial emendations. A newly discovered sonata by Soler, Sonata por la Princesa de Asturias, has been published by Antonio Baciero. See Baciero/Cuadernos I.
34. For a more detailed discussion of the Soler sonatas, see Newman/SCE, pp.279-285.
35. For example, see volumes IV and VI of the Rubio edition.
36. For more information on this treatise and Soler’s application of his modulatory techniques in his sonatas and other works, see Carroll/“Soler.”
37. Newman/SCE, p.283.
38. See Enciclopédia universal 44:449. I am grateful to Jean R. Long land of the Hispanic Society of America for calling this information to my attention.
39. These few works by Oxinaga, who was possibly of Basque origin, are published in Ruiz-Pipó/Música vasca.
40. Preface to Howell/Sessé.
41. Saldoni/Diccionario II:117-118. Another collection, Quaderno primero de una coleccion de piezas de música para clavicordio, forte-piano, y órgano, is mentioned in Espinosa/“López,” p.382.
42. The sole surviving copy of the eighteenth-century edition is now at the Brussels Royal Library. A modern edition, edited by Almonte Howell, is published by Union Musical Española.
43. Preface to Howell/Sessé.
44. A striking portrait of Félix Máximo López, done by the court painter Vicente López (1772-1850), now hangs at the Casón del Buen Retiro, an annex of the Prado Museum in Madrid.
45. Espinosa/“López,” pp. 127-132.
46. Ibid., abstract.
47. Gillespie/“López,” p.247.
48. Kastner/Silva ibérica I gives Lidón’s birth date as 1752, but Diccionario Labor II: 1409 cites 1746 with documentation.
49. Listed in Diccionario Labor II: 1409.
50. Nin/Classiques I:i.
51. Published in Kastner/Silva ibériea I. Kastner informs us that this work comes from a collection of manuscripts of the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries owned by the Reverend Cándido Ledesma Santos, organist of Ciudad Rodrigo Cathedral. The collection was later donated to the archive of that church.
52. Preface to Kastner/Silva ibérica I.
53. Newman/SCE, p.311.
54. A musical example from these four-hand sonatas can be found in Mitjana/“Espagne,” pp.2286-2287.
55. Both sets of sonatas are available in modern edition, published by Union Musical Espanola of Madrid. See Powell/Montero; and Parris/Blasco de Nebra.
56. Librarian’s Report of the Library of Congress, 1940; and Dicсionario Labor I:303.
57. See also Saldoni/Diccionario III:191-193.
58. Ibid., IV:215-216.
59. These minuets are published by Union Musical Española. See Ruiz-Pipó/Montero.
60. Recall the earlier Albero Obras para clavicordio о piano forte, written between 1746 and 1756.
61. Newman/SCE, pp.306-307.
62. Kirkpatrick/Scarlatti, p.205.
63. Newman/SCE, pp.309-310.
64. Unfortunately, I have been unable to locate Donostia/Música detecla, but according to Espinosa/“Lopez,” pp.382-383, sonatas by the following eighteenth-century Basque composers can be found in the anthology: José Larrañaga, Manuel Gamarra, Joaquin de Oxinaga, Joaquin Echeverria, Manuel de Sostoa, José Biadurre, and Juan Lonbide. Donostía/Música y Musicos, pp.76-78 also lists Basque composers of the eighteenth century and some of their works.
65. Ruiz-Pipó/Música vasca, pp.vi-vii.
66. Ibid., p.vii.
67. Pedrell/Diccionario, p.675; and Diccionario Labor 1:899.
68. Pedrell/Catàlech II:311. Baciero/Cuadernos I:12 lists four sonatas by Ferrer. These works are among several by various composers from a MS dated 1776.
69. Nin/Classiques I:ν; and Saldoni/Diccionario 11:574·
70. Published in Nin/Classiques I and Marchi/Clavicembalisti. Nin tells us that it is part of a manuscript that includes sonatas by Soler, Haydn, Edelmann, and an unidentified son of J.S. Bach.
71. Fétis/Biographie universelle, p.120. See also Saldoni/Diccionario 1:297 and IV:263.
72. A Sonata in F and a Sonata in G major are projected for Vol. III and Vol. V of the Baciero series, respectively.
73. Pedrell/Salterio (No. 124 of the series) contains a Sonatina by Anselmo Viola that is the same as the first movement of F. Rodriguez’s Sonata in F minor, No. 6 in Pujol/Mestres II.
74. Fétis/Biographie universelle, Suppl. II:631.
75. Saldoni/Diccionario II:206-207.
76. Newman/SCE, p.286, refers to them as clarinet sonatas, but they are sonatas for the trumpets of the Spanish organ, as in Soler’s Sonata de clarines.
77. Published in Pujol/Mestres I. Sonata No. 4 of this collection is also published in Nin/Classiques II.
78. Published in Pujol/Mestres II. The Rondo in B-flat major is also published in Nin/Classiques II and Marchi/Clavicembalisti. Nin mentions that he had two manuscript versions of the Rondo, one from Madrid and one from Barcelona. He printed the Madrid version, stating that “the Barcelona version includes between measures 94 and 95 a short digression of nine measures which spoils the unity of this exquisite piece.” The other version can be seen in Pujol/Mestres II.
79. Published in Pujol/Mestres II.
80. Newman/SCE, p.313.
81. Nin/Classiques II, original manuscripts in the Biblioteca de Catalunya.
82. Kastner/Silva ibérica I, original manuscript in the library of the Orfeó Català.
83. For a detailed discussion of the style galant, see Newman/SCE, pp. 120-122.
84. Frederick Marvin also has published this work but contends that it is by Soler (Sonatas for Piano, Vol. III [London: Mills Music Ltd., 1959]). Marvin states that the manuscript in the Biblioteca de Catalunya in Barcelona is earlier than 1795 (date given by Nin) and is clearly by Soler. Baciero/Cuadernos I:12: also lists a sonata by Cantallos from a manuscript dated 1776 that contains works by various composers.
85. Newman/SCE, p.311.
86. Published in Nin/Classiques I.
87. Ibid., I:vi.
88. Newman/SCE, p.311.
89. Mitjana/“Espagne,” p.2185. Pedrell/Salterio (No. 119 of the series) lists a Sonatina (1755) by J. Moreno y Polo, and Pedrell/Antologia II contains a Sonatina (1776) by Juan Moreno. Libro músico de canto de órgano compuesto por diferentes autores, 1776, lists a Sonata by Moreno (see Baciero/Cuadernos I:12).
90. According to Enciclopédia universal 36:1023. See also Gómez/Latassa II:366.
91. Sonatas Nos. 2, 3, 6, 7, 10, and 16 (as numbered in the MS) were published in Nin/Classiques II. Sonatas Nos.3 and 16 were also published in Marchi/Clavicembalisti without, of course, Nin’s editorial emendations.
92. Newman/SCE, p.313.
93. Saldoni/Diccionario I:89-106.
94. Nin/Classiques I:vi.
2. The Piano Music of Isaac Albéniz, Enrique Granados, Their Immediate Predecessors, and Their Contemporaries
1. Nin/Classiques I:vi.
2. The Estudios are published by Union Musical Española.
3. Mitjana/“Espagne,” p.2325; and Salazar/El Siglo, p.101.
4. Mitjana/“Espagne,” p.2325; Salazar/El Siglo, p.101; Diccionario Labor I:26.
5. Henri Herz (1803-1888) and Friedrich Kalkbrenner (1785-1849) were two of the fashionable salon pianists in Paris during the early nineteenth century.
6. An autographed copy is available at the Biblioteca Musical of Madrid, as cited in CBM.
7. Sigismond Thalberg (1812-1871), sometimes called “old arpeggio,” was the greatest rival of Liszt. Thalberg delighted in astounding audiences with his new trick of bringing out a melody with both thumbs in the middle register of the piano and enveloping that melody with arpeggios so that it sounded as if more than one person were playing.
8. Eslava/“Albéniz” gives a complete list of P. Albéniz’s works.
9. The fantasias on themes from I Puritani and Lucia di Lammermoor can be found in the Biblioteca Nacional in Madrid.
10. See Friedheim/“Liszt.”
11. Mitjana/“Espagne,” p.2287.
12. Salazar/El Siglo, pp.99-100.
13. According to Subirá/Historia pp.640-641, there is a Biografia de don Santiago de Masarnáu by José María Quadrado; some of Masarnáu’s works can be found in the library of the Madrid Conservatory, and his Tesoro del pianista is in the Biblioteca Nacional.
14. Enciclopedia universal 24:321.
15. Miró’s date of birth is given as 1810 in Espin/“Miró,” p. 83. Saldoni/Diccionario III:80 and Parada y Barreto/Diccionario p.273, give it as 1815.
16. Espin/“Miró,” p.83.
18. Saldoni/Diccionario III:82.
19. As cited in the Gaceta Musical de Madrid, December 28, 1865, pp.53-54; Fétis/Biographie universelle V:248; Parada y Barreto/Diccionario, p.249; and Saldoni/Diccionario III:20-21.
20. A copy of the Repertorio orgánico is in the Biblioteca Nacional in Madrid.
21. For more information on this term associated with musical Romanticism, see Longyear/Romanticism, p.274.
22. Gillespie/Keyboard Music, p.316.
23. Pierre Zimmerman was head of the piano department at the Paris Conservatory 1820-1848.
24· Saldoni/Dicсionario I:251-252.
25. These works can be found in the Biblioteca Nacional in Madrid.
26. These works are also located at the Biblioteca Nacional.
27. Parada у Barreto/Dicсionario, pp. 259-260.
28. Diccionario Labor I:1167.
29. Aranguren’s piano method is advertised several times in the 1864 edition of El Orfeon Espãnol, which states that it was adopted by the Real Conservatorio of Madrid as well as the Escolania of Montserrat. Copies of the method book can be found in the Biblioteca Musical in Madrid.
30. Diccionario Labor I:94.
31. Ibid., I:13.
32. According to Subirá/Historia, p.642, Adalid wrote waltzes, ballades, elegies, fantasies, nocturnes, romances without words, and mazurkas.
33. Ibid., p.643.
34. Enciclopedia universal 48:999-1000.
35. Many works by Zabalza are given in CBM, and a copy of the Sonatinas is in the Biblioteca Nacional.
36. Subirá/Historia, p.644.
37. Pedrell/Diccionario, p. 397. The piano method is cited in CBM.
38. Diccionario Labor II: 1811.
39. The Biblioteca Nacional in Madrid preserves many works for piano by Pujol.
40. Reprinted in Gaceta Musical de Madrid, November 30, and December 7, 1865.
41. Mayer-Serra/“Nationalism,” pp. I-2.
42. See also Collet/L’Essor, pp.36-41.
43. The last three works are in the Biblioteca Nacional in Madrid. Cantos canarios is published by Union Musical Espanola.
44. Subirá/Historia, p.665, notes that Montalbán was considered by some in Spain as the best author of didactic works for the piano.
45. The folk song “El Vito” was also used by Joaquin Turina in his Sonata romántica, Op. 3, and by Manuel Infante for a set of variations for piano.
46. Subirá/Historia, p. 697.
47. Hamilton/“Serrano,” p.718.
48. CBM cites Figuras abreviadas de adorno, Escuela de piano, and Mazurka melódica. Diccionario Labor II:2137 mentions a zortzico.
49. This work is in the Biblioteca Nacional in Madrid.
50. Other smaller works by Nicolau can be found in the Biblioteca Nacional. CBM lists an Allegretto.
51. “Danse Triste” from Noguera’s set of Trois danses.... can be found in Clough-Leighter/Album.
52. According to Diccionario Labor II: 1639.
53· Trend/“Alió.” See also Nadal/“Alió.”
54. This Catalan folk song was also used by Federico Mompou in his piano piece Canción y Danza IV.
55. Collet/L’Essor, p.42; and Diccionario Labor II:1664. The Library of Congress possesses a copy of the Sonate Espagnole, which is listed as Olmeda’s second sonata. I have been unable to locate a first sonata. The preface to the second sonata states that it was written some years earlier, but that it was revised in 1906.
56. The sardanas La Santa Espina and La Nit de L’Amor are published by Union Musical Espanola.
57. Diccionario Labor II:1380. Numerous works by Larregla can be found in the Biblioteca Nacional and Biblioteca Musical of Madrid.
58. ¡Viva Navarra! is published by Union Musical Española. The final three measures of unsatisfactory trills (in the Zozaya edition) have been changed to a more suitable close.
59. Oriental can be found in Clough-Leighter/Album, and the Sonata is listed in CBM.
60. According to Mast/“Albéniz.” However, Marliave/Études, p.121, cites 500; Van Vechten/Excavations, pp.241-242, gives 500-600; and Villar/Músicos I:75 states 900. These figures more than likely refer to the number of works composed, rather than published. For an extensive list of Albéniz’s piano works, see the appendix of Mast/“Albéniz”
61. Mellers/“Mompou,” pp.40-47.
62. Newman/SSB, p.652.
63. Ibid., p.653.
64. Collet/L’Essor, pp.55-56.
65. The jota exists in various forms associated with different regions of Spain. Two examples of the non-Hispanic cultivation of the jota deserve mention: Liszt’s Rhapsodie Espagnole (Folies d’Espagne et Jota Aragonesa) is complete with arabesques and pyrotechnics in the typical Lisztian manner; and Gottschalk’s La Jota Aragonesa is one of serveral works by this nineteenth-century composer to employ Spanish dance rhythms
66. Istel/“Albéniz,” p.142.
68. According to Starkie/Spain II:122.
69. Chase/Spain, p. 157.
70. Cante jondo (literally “deep song”) is a traditional song form of Andalusia.
71. Chase/Spain, pp.157-158.
72. Quoted in Gillespie/Keyboard Music, p.318.
73. Mast/“Albéniz,” p.363.
74. Other examples of this chord can be found in Málaga (mm. 11-12) and Jerez (mm. 202-203).
75. Quoted in Chase/Spain, p.159.
76. Mast/“Albéniz,” p.368.
77. One of Granados’s most distinguished pupils was Frank Marshall, later to become the director of the Academia Granados. The present director, Alicia de Larrocha, a pupil of Marshall, is one of the most praised interpreters of Granados’s works.
78. Chase/Spain, p. 161.
79. According to Larrocha/“Granados,” pp.22-23. Fairly complete lists of Granados’s piano works can be found in Grove 5,III:756 and in Revista Musical Catalana 13 (1916):208-209. The latter also contains a list of memorial concerts given in April and May of 1916, only a matter of weeks after Granados’s death.
80. Livermore/“Granados,” p.87.
81. Quoted in Gillespie/Keyboard Music, p.321; and Larrocha/“Granados,” p.23.
82. The majos and majas were the members of Madrid’s lower classes in Goya’s time.
83. Blas de Laserna (1751-1816) was an important composer of tonadillas in Spain. The Tirana del Tripili is given in Mitjana/“Espagne,” pp. 2290-2291.
84. Pedro Albéniz also made use of this famous song in two rondos written earlier in the nineteenth century.
85. Chase/Spain, p. 164.
87. See Newman/SSB 139.
88. Cited in Gillespie/Keyboard Music, p. 323.
89. Newman/“Goyescas,” p.347.
90. Quoted in Chase/Spain, p.165.
3. Falla, Turina, Mompou, and Their Contemporaries
1. Pahissa/Falla, p.35.
2. Crowder/“Falla,” p.II.
3. Ibid., p.13.
4. According to Wirth/“Falla,” p.1751, this work was written in Madrid in 1903. Apparently it is still unpublished.
5. Originally entitled Pour le tombeau de Paul Dukas, this work first appeared in the musical supplement of La Revue Musicale, May-June 1936, PP.7-9·
6. Chase/“Falla,” pp.41-42.
7. Ibid., p.43·
8. Esteban/“Falla,” p. 19.
9. Chase/“Falla,” p.46.
10. Sopeña/Turina, pp.22-23.
11. Ibid., pp.35-36.
12. Starkie/Spain II:129.
13. Ibid., p.130.
14. For detailed information on Turina’s piano music and a complete list of his works for piano, see Powell/“Turina.” Though Fantasia del reloj, Op. 94, is listed in the appendix of Sopeña/Turina, it has never been published.
15. Sopuña/ Turina, p.88.
16. Lockwood/Notes, p. 192.
17. Quoted in Sopeña/Turina, p.43.
18. Dean/“Turina,” p.95.
19. Although the MS of the work has been lost, the various movements are listed in the appendix of Sopeña/Turina.
20. For more information on the influence of dance rhythms on Turina’s piano music, see Powell/“Rhythms.”
21. Falla also paid homage to Arbós with his “Fanfare on the Name E. F. Arbós,” from Homenajes.
22. For more information on this work, see Powell/“Nationalists.”
23. For a pedagogical discussion of the initial movement of El circo, see Bryant/“Lesson,” pp.21-26.
24. Dean/“Turina,” p.96.
25. Starkie/Spain II:130.
26. Musical Times 72 (1931):515.
27. Monthly Musical Record 42 (1932): 113.
28. Trend/“alla,” pp.II-12.
29. For more information on Turina’s melodic style, see Powell/“Spain.”
30. Chase/“Esplá,” p.199. The noted English scholar of Spanish music John Trend gives a lengthy discussion on “The Spanish Idiom” in Trend/Spanish.
31. Chase/“Esplá,” p.200.
32. Bergerac/“Andalusian,” pp. 162-163.
33. Dean/“Turina,” p.96.
34. For a more detailed discussion of this sonata, see Powell/“Cyclical.”
35. For more detailed biographical information on Mompou, see Janés/Mompou.
36. Huot/“Mompou,” p.77.
37. Mellers/“Mompou,” p.47.
38. Vuillermoz/Musiques, pp. 123-125.
39. Mellers/“Mompou,” p.47.
40. Huot/“Mompou,” p.58.
41. Starkie/Spain II:134· For a complete list of works by Mompou, see the appendixes of Iglesias/Mompou and Janés/Mompou.
42. Quoted in Grove 5, V:825.
43. To date there are fourteen works in this series. No. 13, however, is for guitar, and No. 14 is unpublished. No. 14 was written especially for the concert celebrating the composer’s 85th birthday. It was given at Alice Tu11y Hall, Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts, New York, March 26, 1978.
44. Reference to each folk song used, with complete text in Catalan and Castilian, is given in Iglesias/Mompou, pp. 225-280. See also Méeus/“Mompou.”
45. Iglesias/Mompou, p. 303.
46. From San Juan de la Cruz, Cântico espiritual. See Janés/Mompou, p.248.
47. Janés/Mompou, p.255.
48. Huot/“Mompou,” p.58.
49. Starkie/“Mompou,” p.826.
50. Another work, Para la tumba de Lenin (1937), has remained in MS
51. See Kirkpatrick/Scarlatti, p.90.
52. Powell/“Halffter,” p.4.
53. Ibid., p.5.
54. Field/“Halffter,” p.7.
55. Music Review 10 (1949): 127.
56. For more information on the bagatelles, see Field/“Bagatelas.”
57. For more detailed information on the second sonata, see Field/“Segunda Sonata.”
58. Field/“Halffter,” p.7.
59. Chas/Spain, p. 202.
60. Ibid., p.317.
61. Ibid., p.205.
62. Salazar/Música, p.249.
63. Ibid., p.262.
64. Pittaluga was on the staff of the Spanish Embassy in Washington, 1937-1939, after which he went to France.
65. Reprinted in Musicalia (Havana), Nos. 15-16, January-April 1931.
66. Chase/Spain, p.203.
67. For more biographical information, see Borrás/Conrado del Campo.
68. Salazar/Música, p.223.
69. Ibid., pp.223-224.
70. Collet/L’Essor, p. 146.
71. Diccionario Labor I:1026.
73. Chase/Spain, p. 169.
74. Diccionario Labor II:1466.
75. See Collet/L’Essor, p. 149; and Valls/Música, pp.133-137.
76. Diccionario Labor I:98.
77. Valls/Música, p. 150.
78. Collet/L’Essor, p.129.
79. For more information on Palau, see Fernández-Cid/Música, pp. 83-88; and Mingot/Palau.
80. For a more detailed discussion of these works, except for Homenaje a Debussy, see Leon Tello/Palau.
81. Ibid., p.45.
82. Sopeña/Rodrigo, pp. 133-134, gives a complete list of works through 1946. Sopeña/Historia, pp.376-377, and Diccionario Labor II:1898 list piano works through 1952.
83. Diego/Música, p.183
84. Collet/L’Essor, p.97. Chase/Spain, pp.173-174, gives the scale incorrectly as C-D-flat-E-flat-E-natural-F-G-flat-A-flat-B-flat.
85. Fernández-Cid/Música, p.80; and Collet/L’Essor, p.97.
86. Collet/L’Essor, p.97.
87. For a list of Esplá’s piano works, see Sopeña/Historia, p.354.
88. Salazar/Música, p.236.
89. Chase/“Esplá” pp.199-203.
90. Obras musicales del Padre Donostia (Lecaroz, Navarra: Archivo Padre Donostia, 1960-).
91. For a complete list of Guridi’s works, see the appendix of Arozamena/Guridi.
92. Fernández-Cid/Música, p.145.
93. Chase/Spain, p.179.
94· For a complete list, see Arozamena/Usandizaga, pp.366-367. Brief comments on some of the piano works can be found in Arozamena/Usandizaga, pp.159-161.
95. Fernández-Cid/Música, pp.158-162. For more information on Garcia Leoz, see Fernández-Cid/Música, pp.187-203.
96. Chase/Spain, p.178.
97· Collet/L’Essor, p.103.
98. The song “El Vito” can be found in Vol. 2 of Vingt chants populaires, edited by Joaquin Nin.
99. Sonata (1934) was originally published by Oxford University Press. The title was changed to Sonata breve when it was reissued by Broude Brothers in 1955.
100. Lourié/“Musings,” p.241.
101. Ellis/“Character Piece,” p.682-683.
4. The Influence of the Guitar on Spanish Keyboard Music
1. Chase/“Falla,” p.43.
2. Kirkpatrick/Scarlatti, p.205.
3. Chase/Spain, p.114.
4. Kirkpatrick/Scarlatti, p.205.
5. Chase/Spain, p.114.
6. Chase/“Falla,” p.43.
7. A complete list of Turina’s piano works that employ guitar effects can be found in Powell/“Guitar Effects,” p.42; and Powell/“Turina,” p.166.
8. Trend/Spanish, p.97.
9. Quoted in Grove 5, VII: 198.
5. Spanish Piano Music since World War II
1. Marco/“Traditionalism,” p.41.
2. Vinton/Dictionary, p.791.
3. Valls/Música, p.202.
4. Ibid., p.201.
5. Vinton/Dictionary, pp.478-479. For more information on Mestres Quadreny, see Wolf-Eberhard von Lewinski, “Vier katalanische Kom-ponisten in Barcelona,” Melos 38 (1971):92-103.
6. Marco/Música, pp.48-49.
7. For more biographical information see Franco/Montsalvatge.
8. Vinton/Dictionary, p.495.
9. Valls/Música, p.160.
10. Franco/Montsalvatge, p.61.
11. See also René Leibowitz, “La música de Xavier Benguerel,” Serra d’or 101(1968):68֊70; and Wolf-Eberhard von Lewinski, “Vier katalanische Komponisten in Barcelona,” Melos 38 (1971):92-103.
12. Custer/“Contemporary,” p.53.
13. Fernández-Cid/Música, p. 198.
14. Custer/“Contemporary,” p.53.
15. From an interview with Otto Mayer-Serra published in the Mexican journal Audiomúsica, July 10, 1961.
16. From an interview in Estafeta Literaria, February 15, i960.
17. Vinton/Dictionary, p.550.
18. Custer/“Contemporary,” p.51.
19. Ibid., p.55.
20. Fernández-Cid/Música, pp.48-49.
21. Chase/Spain, pp.323-324.